Fusarium head blight in western Canada - Graphs

Graphs

Percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts, 2002 to 2008

Map showing the crop districts in Alberta

Map showing the crop districts in Alberta
In Alberta, there are only 7 crop districts. Along the southern part, they are numbered from 1 in the east to 3 in the west. Along the central part of Alberta, they are numbered 4 and 5, and 6 is situated just above these. The crop district encompassing the northwestern part, including the Peace River area, is number 7. See graphs below for yearly percentages.

2008 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts, 2008
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Alberta. Although F. graminearum was dominant in crop districts 1, 2, 3 and 6, very few FDK were found outside of CD’s 1 and 2. Therefore the results for CD’s 3 and 6 must be considered in light of this fact. F. avenaceum and Septoria nodorum dominated the few FDK found outside of southern Alberta.

2007 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts, 2007
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Alberta. F. graminearum was dominant in crop districts 1 and 2, infecting 14 of the 24 samples (334 of 493 FDK) from CD1 with FDK and 30 of 72 (284 of 990 FDK) from CD2. F. avenaceum and Septoria nodorum dominated the few FDK found outside of southern Alberta.

2006 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts, 2006
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Alberta. Outside of crop districts 1 and 2 very few FDK are encountered. F. graminearum was dominant over F. culmorum in crop district 2 whereas F. culmorum dominated crop district 1. Outside of southern Alberta, the very few FDK detected were primarily caused by F. avenaceum and Septoria nodorum

2005 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts, 2005
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Alberta. Outside of crop districts 1 and 2 very few FDK are encountered. As in 2004, F. graminearum was dominant over F. culmorum in both crop districts 1 and 2. In the northern crop districts, the very few FDK detected were primarily caused by F. avenaceum and Septoria nodorum.

2004 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts, 2004
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Alberta. Outside of crop districts 1 and 2 very few FDK are encountered. In contrast to 2003, F. graminearum was dominant over F. culmorum in both crop districts 1 and 2. In the northern crop districts, the few FDK detected are more often caused by Septoria nodorum than any of the Fusarium species.

2003 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts, 2003
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Alberta. Outside of crop districts 1 and 2 very few FDK are encountered. F. culmorum was dominant in both crop districts 1 and 2. In the northern crop districts, the few FDK detected are more often caused by Septoria nodorum than any of the Fusarium species.

2002 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Alberta crop districts, 2002
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Alberta. In 2002 unusually wet weather in southern Alberta resulted in a considerable increase in the number of wheat samples with FDK and the number of FDK within the affected samples. Outside of crop districts 1 and 2 very few FDK are encountered. F. graminearum and F. culmorum were dominant in crop districts 1 and 2 respectively. In the northern crop districts, the few FDK detected are more often caused by Septoria nodorum than any of the Fusarium speecis.

Percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts, 1998 to 2008

Map showing the crop districts in Saskatchewan

Map showing the crop districts in Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan crop districts along the southern part are numbered from 1 in the east to 4 in the west. Along the central part of Saskatchewan from east to west they are numbered 5 to 7, and along the northern part of the agricultural area from east to west they are numbered 8 and 9.

2008 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts, 2008
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan in 2008. F. graminearum was the primary FHB pathogen in the crop districts 1, 2, 5, 6 and 8. Weather in eastern Saskatchewan was generally favourable to FHB development.

2007 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts, 2007
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan in 2007. F. graminearum was the primary FHB pathogen in the eastern crop districts 1, 2, 3 /4 and 5. Weather in Saskatchewan was generally unfavourable to FHB development. FDK levels in Saskatchewan were low, primarily being found in the south-eastern crop districts.

2006 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts, 2006
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan in 2006. F. graminearum was the primary FHB pathogen in the eastern crop districts 1, 2 and 5. Weather in Saskatchewan was generally unfavourable to FHB development. In the western crop districts F. avenaceum was the dominant Fusarium species from FDK. FDK levels in Saskatchewan were very low.

2005 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts, 2005
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan in 2005. F. graminearum was the primary FHB pathogen in the eastern crop districts 1, 2 and 5. Weather in Saskatchewan was generally unfavourable to FHB development. In the western crop districts F. avenaceum was the dominant Fusarium species from FDK. FDK levels in Saskatchewan were low.

2004 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts, 2004
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan in 2004. F. graminearum was the primary FHB pathogen only in crop district 1. Unusually cool temperatures throughout the growing season may have suppressed disease levels and altered pathogen ratios. In the western crop districts F. avenaceum was the dominant Fusarium species from FDK. As in 2003, FDK levels in Saskatchewan were very low.

2003 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts, 2003
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan in 2003. F. graminearum was the primary FHB pathogen only in crop district 1. Dry weather in most areas of Saskatchewan resulted in very low levels of FHB, even in the eastern areas.

2002 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts, 2002
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan in 2002. F. graminearum was the primary FHB pathogen in crop districts 1 and 5, whereas F. avenaceum was the dominant species in most other Saskatchewan crop districts. Unusually wet weather in normally dry areas of Saskatchewan resulted in a considerable rise in the number of samples with FDK (especially crop districts 3, 4 and 6), the majority of which were infected by F. avenaceum and Septoria nodorum.

2001 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts, 2001
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan in 2001. The relative distribution of the causal species is very similar to that of recent years. F. graminearum was the primary FHB pathogen in crop districts 1, 2, and 5. The percentage of wheat samples with FDK in those crop districts was 58%, 14%, and 12% respectively, a considerable rise over past years. Although it was present in other crop districts, there were very few samples of wheat with FDK from outside the south-eastern corner of the province.

2000 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts, 2000
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan in 2000. The relative distribution of the causal species is very similar to that of 1999. However, in 2000 F. graminearum was not dominant in crop district 2, but it was in crop district 8. Crop districts 1 and 5 continued to have the highest percentage of samples with FDK as well as the highest levels of FDK in Saskatchewan.

1999 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts, 1999
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan in 1999 when tabulated by crop district. As in 1998, F. graminearum was dominant in southeastern Saskatchewan (crop districts 1, 2, and 5). Crop districts 1 and 5 had the highest percentage of samples with FDK, as well as the greatest number of FDK. F. graminearum was not the dominant species in any other Saskatchewan crop district in 1999.

1998 – Percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts

Graph illustrating the percentage of species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan crop districts, 1998
This graph illustrates the difference in species infecting FDK in Saskatchewan in 1998 when tabulated by crop district. F. graminearum was dominant in south eastern Saskatchewan (crop districts 1, 2, and 5) in 1998. Those crop districts also had the highest percentage of wheat samples in Saskatchewan containing FDK (23.5%, 1.5% and 7% respectively). Although F. graminearum was also dominant in crop districts 3, 4 and 7, very few FDK were found in those areas.

Percentage of wheat samples containing FDK, 1998 to 2005

Graph illustrating the percentage of wheat samples containing FDK
This graph is based on the results of the CGC's harvest surveys and shows the percentage of wheat samples containing FDK in the three prairie provinces from 1998 to 2005. In 2003, dry weather over much of the Canadian prairies during and after flowering resulted in the lowest level of FDK since 1992. There is no graph available for 2004, but FDK levels were low, although above those of 2003. In 2005, levels in the three prairie provinces were similar to those of 1999. FHB remains a minor disease in Alberta and most of Saskatchewan. Beginning in 2006, only those samples that were downgraded due to the presence of FDK were counted, whereas previously all samples with FDK were recorded. Therefore, the results for 2006 onward will not be comparable to those collected earlier. It is worth noting that in 2006 a warm dry growing season resulted in the lowest level of FDK seen in western Canada for over a decade, with less than 4% of Manitoba wheat samples being downgraded due to FDK. In 2007 wet weather in June resulted in above normal FDK levels in Manitoba winter wheat, but spring wheats had very low levels of infection due to dry weather in July. 2008 saw a return to above average FDK counts in both winter and spring wheats grown in Manitoba, especially in the Interlake and north-western Manitoba.

Relative frequency of species recovered from FDK in Manitoba, 2001 to 2008

Relative frequency of species recovered from FDK in Manitoba from 2001 to 2008
These graphs illustrate the relative frequencies with which the main fungi isolated from FDK have been recovered from Manitoba in 2001 to 2008. As there is a considerable difference between crop districts within Saskatchewan and Alberta, the results from Saskatchewan in 1998 to 2008, and Alberta from 2002 to 2008, are now presented below. F. graminearum continues to be the species responsible for almost all the FDK in Manitoba. F. avenaceum was the primary species from Saskatchewan until 1997, when it was replaced by F. graminearum. Septoria nodorum has traditionally been the species most often isolated from the few FDK found in wheat from the central and northern areas of Alberta. This fungus is the causal agent of glume blotch, and although it is not a species of Fusarium, it can produce a kernel visually indistinguishable from those produced by the Fusariam causing FHB. In southern Alberta, the few FDK kernels found are typically infected by Fusarium spp. Other fungi were also found infecting FDK, and they varied in frequency from 3% to 31%. The most common of these fungi was Alternaria alternata. Other important members of this category were Apiospora montagnei, Asteromella spp., F. poae, F. sporotrichioides, and Nigrospora oryzae.
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