Quality of western Canadian canola 2014

Fatty acid composition

The average level of erucic acid in the 2014 crop was 0.01%, which is identical to what was observed for the last 4 years (0.01%) and to the 5-year average of 0.01%. Similar to total glucosinolate content, these low values are a direct result of breeding efforts of the Canadian canola industry.

For Canola, No. 1 Canada samples,  mean a-linolenic acid (C18:3) was 9.2%, very similar to what was observed for the 2013 harvest (9.1%) and lower than the 5-year average (9.7%). This year, the a-linolenic acid averages were identical in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta-Peace River (9.2%). This result is very unusual because environment conditions affect fatty acid composition for a given genetic – warmer growing conditions leading to lower levels of oil unsaturation and growing conditions are very different in the south or the north of the Prairies. It is likely that the drought-like conditions observed in the Alberta-Peace River Area of British Columbia affected the fatty acid composition of seeds, leading to a fatty acid composition similar to the one observed in Manitoba.

For Canola, No. 1 Canada samples, mean oleic acid (C18:1) content of the 2014 crop was 63.2% very similar to what was observed in 2013 (63.4%) and higher than the 5-year mean (62.5%) by 0.7%. On average, oleic acid contents were similar in Manitoba (62.9%) and Saskatchewan (63.1%) and slightly higher in Alberta-Peace River (63.4%).

The fatty acid composition (oleic acid, linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid) of the 2014 crop presented only slight differences when compared to the 2013 fatty acid composition (-0.2%, +0.2% and -0.1% for oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acid contents). This led to a change in the iodine value average. The 2014 iodine value average was higher than the 2013 iodine value average by 0.5 units (112.2 units in 2014 versus 111.7 units in 2013). For Canola, No. 1 Canada, the iodine value averages were similar for the 3 provinces, reflecting the similar fatty acid composition (112.3, 112.1 and 112.1 units for Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, respectively). Looking at individual samples, the lowest and the highest iodine value were found in Manitoba, 105.5 and 120.9 units.

Samples graded Canola, No. 2 Canada showed higher iodine value averages, with higher linoleic and α-linolenic acid contents and lower oleic acid contents that the samples Canola, No. 1 Canada.

Average of saturated fatty acid content was 6.7% in 2014. The 2014 overall average was similar to the 2013 average (6.8%) and similar to what has been observed since 2009 (from 6.6 - 6.9%). In 2014 the saturated fatty acid content averages were identical for the 3 provinces, (6.7, 6.7 and 6.6% for Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta-Peace River, respectively). Total saturated fatty acids are usually affected by temperature, high temperatures lead to higher oil saturation.

For the first 4 months of the 2014-15 shipping season, a-linolenic acid averages for clean samples ranged from 8.8 to 9.6%, averaging 9.6 and 9.0% in November and in August-October respectively for commercially clean exports. This is similar t1o what was observed during last shipping season (9.0%). When compared to last year’s average, iodine value averages were similar this year (111.5 to 112.9 units, until November 2014) to what was observed for the last shipping season (average 111.5 units). The level of saturated fatty acids in the November 2014 canola exports remained very similar to 2013-14 means (6.6% versus 6.4%). It is expected that levels of erucic acid will remain very low for the new shipping season (below 0.1%) since erucic acid contents were very low in the 2014 harvest.

Fatty acid composition – 2014 Harvest
Canola quality data by grade and province
  Relative fatty acid composition of the oil (%) Total saturatesFootnote 3 (%) Iodine valueFootnote 4 (Units)
C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 C22:1
Canola, No. 1 Canada
Manitoba 1.8 62.9 18.9 9.2 0.00 6.7 112.3
Saskatchewan 1.7 63.1 18.7 9.2 0.02 6.7 112.1
AlbertaFootnote 1 1.7 63.4 18.5 9.2 0.00 6.6 112.1
Western CanadaFootnote 2 1.7 63.2 18.7 9.2 0.01 6.7 112.2
Canola, No. 2 Canada
Manitoba 1.6 60.5 19.7 10.4 0.00 6.9 115.0
Saskatchewan 1.6 60.6 19.8 10.3 0.05 6.7 115.1
AlbertaFootnote 1 1.6 62.1 18.8 10.0 0.00 6.5 113.6
Western CanadaFootnote 2 1.6 61.2 19.4 10.0 0.02 6.7 114.4
Canola, No. 3 Canada
Western CanadaFootnote 2 1.6 60.1 19.8 10.5 0.08 6.8 114.9
Canola, Sample Canada
Western CanadaFootnote 2 1.7 61.5 19.1 10.0 0.03 6.8 113.6

Canola, No. 1 Canada - harvest samples, 2000–2014
Erucic acid content (of the oil %)

Graph of canola erucic acid content from samples 2000-2014. Details in table below.
Table: Erucic acid content mean of harvest samples, 2000-2014 - Canola, No. 1 Canada
Erucic acid content (of the oil %)
Year Erucic acid content (of the oil %)
2000 0.15
2001 0.11
2002 0.11
2003 0.13
2004 0.12
2005 0.06
2006 0.05
2007 0.04
2008 0.01
2009 0.01
2010 0.03
2011 0.01
2012 0.01
2013 0.01
2014 0.01

Canola, No. 1 Canada - harvest samples, 2000–2014
α-Linolenic acid content (of the oil %)

Graph of canola α-Linolenic content from samples 2000-2014. Details in table below.
Table: α-Linolenic acid content mean of harvest samples, 2000-2014 - Canola, No. 1 Canada
α-Linolenic acid content (of the oil %)
Year α-Linolenic acid content (of the oil %)
2000 9.9
2001 9.35
2002 10.58
2003 8.44
2004 11.24
2005 11.05
2006 9.89
2007 9.79
2008 9.08
2009 9.8
2010 10.39
2011 9.87
2012 9.55
2013 9.07
2014 9.2

Canola, No. 1 Canada - harvest samples, 2000–2014
Oleic acid content (of the oil %)

Graph of canola Oleic acid content from samples 2000-2014. Details in table below.
Table: Oleic acid content mean of harvest samples, 2000-2014 - Canola, No. 1 Canada
Oleic acid content (of the oil %)
Year Oleic acid content (of the oil %)
2000 61.46
2001 61.94
2002 60.64
2003 63.18
2004 58.94
2005 59.82
2006 62.05
2007 61.47
2008 63.21
2009 62.25
2010 62.25
2011 62.04
2012 62.5
2013 63.43
2014 62.9

Canola, No. 1 Canada - harvest samples, 2000–2014
Linoleic acid content (of the oil %)

Graph of canola Linoleic acid content from samples 2000-2014. Details in table below.
Table: Linoleic acid content mean of harvest samples, 2000-2014 - Canola, No. 1 Canada
Linoleic acid content (of the oil %)
Year Linoleic acid content (of the oil %)
2000 19.08
2001 19.12
2002 19.14
2003 18.52
2004 20.29
2005 19.7
2006 18.86
2007 19.3
2008 18.45
2009 18.81
2010 18.86
2011 19.05
2012 19.17
2013 18.52
2014 18.9

Canola, No. 1 Canada - harvest samples, 2000–2014
Iodine value (Units, in oil)

Graph of canola Iodine value from samples 2000-2014. Details in table below.
Table: Iodine value mean of harvest samples, 2000-2014 - Canola, No. 1 Canada
Iodine value (Units)
Year Iodine value (Units)
2000 114.0
2001 112.41
2002 114.74
2003 110.07
2004 117.01
2005 116.05
2006 113.38
2007 113.27
2008 111.49
2009 113.96
2010 115.04
2011 113.63
2012 113.32
2013 111.75
2014 112.3

Canola, No. 1 Canada - harvest samples, 2000–2014
Total Saturated fatty acid content (of the oil %)

Graph of canola Total Saturated fatty acid content from samples 2000-2014. Details in table below.
Table: Total Saturated fatty acid content mean of harvest samples, 2000-2014 - Canola, No. 1 Canada
Total Saturated fatty acid content (of the oil %)
Year Total Saturated fatty acid content (of the oil %)
2000 7.09
2001 7.2
2002 7.03
2003 7.26
2004 6.96
2005 6.96
2006 6.98
2007 6.98
2008 7.09
2009 6.85
2010 6.85
2011 6.8
2012 6.58
2013 6.8
2014 6.74

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Includes part of the Peace River area that is in British Columbia.

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Footnote 2

Values are weighted averages based on production by province as estimated by Statistics Canada.

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Footnote 3

Total saturated fatty acids are the sum of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), arachidic (C20:0), behenic (C22:0), and lignoceric (C24:0).

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Footnote 4

Calculated from fatty acid composition.

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