Quality of western Canadian canola 2015

Weather and production review

Weather review and effects on seeding and harvest

The weather maps presented in Figures 2a and 2b were obtained from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Seeding and harvest progress for each provinces are presented in Figure 3. The graphs were done using the crop reports for each province: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta.

As in 2014, extreme conditions were the norm for the 2015 growing season. Winter was warmer that what was observed in 2014 for the same period, so seeding started two weeks earlier in 2015 when compared to 2014 (Figure 2a). Weather in May was not cooperative; there were two cold spells with frost, one mid-May and another one at the end of the month with frost and snow. As a result, some areas were reseeded twice and some were not reseeded with canola (Figure 3). Manitoba alone had to reseed about 1 million acres. June temperatures were lower than normal in the southern Saskatchewan and Alberta and normal in the rest of the prairies. Warm temperatures started at the end of June and continued into July and August throughout the prairies. In September there was some cooling down in Alberta and northwestern Saskatchewan with lower than average temperatures whereas Manitoba and a big part of Saskatchewan had higher than normal temperatures.

Precipitation was a problem in 2015, both the lack of and too much at the wrong time. Moisture was in short supply from April to about early to mid-July for the prairies (Figure 2b); as a result the canola crop had difficulty emerging. Then there was enough moisture to ensure crop development in most of the prairies; however, some part of Alberta and the Peace River area of British Columbia suffered from lack of rain for most of the growing season. September had too much rain delaying the crop harvest because the fields were too wet for the machinery to operate. October was dry and warm enough to allow the harvest to progress with the harvest finally being completed by early November (Figure 3).

Figure 2a. Mean temperature difference from normal in Canada (Prairies) during the 2015 growing season

Prepared by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada’s National Agroclimate Information Service (NAIS). Data provided through partnership with Environment Canada.

April 2015. Monthly mean temperature difference from normal (Prairie Region)

Map - Monthly mean temperature difference from normal (Prairie Region), April 2015

July 2015. Monthly mean temperature difference from normal (Prairie Region)

Map - Monthly mean temperature difference from normal (Prairie Region), July 2015

September 2015. Monthly mean temperature difference from normal (Prairie Region)

Map - Monthly mean temperature difference from normal (Prairie Region), September 2015

Figure 2b. Accumulated precipitation and departure from normal in Canada (Prairies) during the 2015 growing season (April 1 to October 31, 2015)

Prepared by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada’s National Agroclimate Information Service (NAIS). Data provided through partnership with Environment Canada.

April 1 to July 6, 2015. Accumulated precipitation and departure from normal in Canada (Prairies)

Map - Accumulated precipitation and departure from normal in Canada (Prairies), April 1 to July 6, 2015

July 10 to September 7, 2015. Accumulated precipitation and departure from normal in Canada (Prairies)

Map - Accumulated precipitation and departure from normal in Canada (Prairies), July 10 to September 7, 2015

August 9 to September 7, 2015. Accumulated precipitation and departure from normal in Canada (Prairies)

Map - Accumulated precipitation and departure from normal in Canada (Prairies), August 9 to September 7, 2015

Figure 3. Seeding and harvest progress in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta for the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons

A. Seeding progress in 2014 and 2015

Graph - Seeding progress in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta for the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Details in table below.

Table A: Seeding progress in 2014 and 2015
Seeding progress in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta for the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons
Seeding date 2015 Manitoba, % 2015 Saskatchewan, % 2015 Alberta, % 2014 Manitoba, % 2014 Saskatchewan, % 2014 Alberta, %
May 2 35
May 3 55
June 1 75
June 2 65
June 3 99
June 15 100
May 4 1
May 11 55
May 19 72
May 25 87
June 1 93
June 8 97
June 15 100
April 27 1
May 4 14
May 11 34
May 18 64
26-May 87
June 1 97
May 5 14
May 12 35
May 19 70
May 26 95
June 2 100
May 5 0.5
May 12 0.5
May 20 25
May 26 27
June 2 65
June 9 85
June 16 90
June 23 100
May 8 2
May 15 7
May 22 22
May 29 64
June 5 78
June 12 93
June 19 95
June 26 100
May 5 2
May 20 47
June 3 95
B. Harvest progress in 2014 and 2015

Graph - Harvesting progress in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta for the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Details in table below.

Table B: Harvest progress in 2014 and 2015
Harvesting progress in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta for the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons
Harvesting date 2015 Manitoba, % 2015 Saskatchewan, % 2015 Alberta, % 2014 Manitoba, % 2014 Saskatchewan, % 2014 Alberta, %
August 10 1 0.8
August 17 3 1.8
August 24 7 1.8
August 31 14 6.6
September 8 25 13.2 1
September 15 38 19.2 5
September 22 47.8 28.9 30
September 29 70 42 45
October 6 81 60.2 70
October 14 95 89 79.8 85
October 20 97 94.2 90    
August 21 1
August 28 2
September 4 7
September 11 1
September 18 23
September 25 68
October 2 89
October 16 95
October 23   99  
October 30      
August 19 1
August 26 4
September 2 13
September 9 19
September 16 26
September 23 52
September 30 72
October 7 81
October 17     93
October 21     97.7

Production

Western Canadian farmers planted over 8.0 million hectares of canola in 2015, slightly over what was seeded in 2014 and about 1.8% more than the 5-year average (Table 2). Statistics Canada reported that the 2015 western Canada average yield was 2,100 kilograms per hectare, below the record average yield observed in 2013 (2,200 kilograms per hectare) but higher than the 5-year yield average of 1,886 kilograms per hectare. The 2015 production for western Canada (17.171 million metric tonnes) was the second highest production recorded in Canada. It was only 700,000 tonne lower than the 2013 record production of 17.876 million metric tonnes and well above the 5 year average production (14.865 million tonnes).

In 2015, the provincial production for Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia accounted for 16.6, 51.3, 31.7 and 0.4% (14.9, 49.2, 35.4 and 0.5% in 2014) of the total canola production, respectively (Table 2). The 2015 average yields were much higher in all the western provinces (Manitoba: 2,300, Saskatchewan: 2,000, Alberta: 2,200 and British Columbia 1,900 kilograms per hectare) than last year yield averages (2,000, 1,800, 2,100 and 1,700 kilograms per hectare for Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia, respectively).

Table 2. Seeded area and production for western Canadian canola
Province Seeded area Harvested area ProductionFootnote1
thousand hectares thousand hectares thousand tonnes
2015 2014 2010-14 2015 2014 2010-14 2015 2014 2010-14
Manitoba 1,270.7 1,214.1 1,283.3 1,266.7 1,185.7 1,246.4 2,857.6 2,313.3 2,249.3
Saskatchewan 4,330.1 4,309.9 4,139.9 4,305.9 4,208.7 4,064.7 8,799.7 7,622.6 7,213.5
Alberta 2,468.5 2,630.5 2,493.0 2,448.3 2,612.2 2,470.6 5,443.1 5,488.5 5,334.5
British Columbia 36.4 42.5 41.6 36.4 42.1 41.2 70.8 71.9 67.8
Western Canada 8,105.8 8,197.0 7,957.8 8,057.3 8,048.7 7,957.8 17,171.2 15,496.3 14,865.1

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Consult Statistics Canada’s website for all production data.

Return to footnote 1 referrer