Quality of western Canadian canola 2016 - Overview

Overview

The 2016 harvest showed a higher percentage of samples graded Canola, No. 1 Canada (95.4%) than the 2015 harvest (91.5%), this number was higher than the 10 year average (87.1%) (Figure 4). Large variations in grade distribution were observed. Alberta-British Columbia area showed the lowest percent of samples graded Canola, No. 1 Canada (85.9%) when compared to Manitoba (94.5%) and Saskatchewan (93.7%) (Figure 5). The crop district 7 of Alberta-British Columbia had the lowest percent of samples graded Canola, No. 1 Canada (65.8%).

The 2016 western Canadian canola (Canola, No.1 Canada) crop was characterized by an oil content average similar to the 2015 crop (44.3% in 2016 versus 44.2% in 2015) and a slight decrease in protein content average (20.0% in 2016 versus 20.7% in 2015) for samples graded Canola, No.1 Canada. Average chlorophyll content was similar in 2016 when compared to 2015 (11 milligrams/kilogram versus 12 milligrams/kilogram, respectively) with some areas showing averages higher than 15 milligrams/kilogram for samples graded Canola, No.1 Canada. Samples from Manitoba and Saskatchewan showed similar chlorophyll content averages whereas Alberta-British Columbia showed a higher average: 10 and 11 milligrams/kilogram for Manitoba and Saskatchewan, respectively versus 13 milligrams/kilogram for Alberta-British Columbia.

Table 1 Canola, No. 1 Canada - Quality data for 2015 and 2016 harvest plus the 5 year means
Quality parameter 2016 2015 2011 to 2015 Mean
Number of received samples 1915 1941 1885
Number of Canola, No. 1 Canada samples 1827 1782 1632
Oil content (%, 8.5% moisture) 44.3 44.2 44.4
Protein contentFootnote1 (%, 8.5% moisture) 20.0 20.7 20.2
Oil-free protein of the mealFootnote1 (%, 12% moisture) 37.4 38.6 37.7
Chlorophyll content (milligrams per kilogram in seed) 11 12 14
Total seed glucosinolates (µmoles/gram, 8.5% moisture) 10 11 10
Oil-free total glucosinolates of the meal (µmoles/gram, dry basis) 22 23 21
Free fatty acids (%) 0.20 0.18 0.15
Oleic acid (% in oil) 62.6 62.6 62.7
Linoleic acid (% in oil) 18.9 18.8 18.8
α-Linolenic acid (% in oil) 9.6 9.7 9.5
Erucic acid (% in oil) 0.01 0.01 0.02
Total saturated fatty acidsFootnote2 (% in oil) 6.7 6.7 6.7
Iodine value 113.1 113.1 112.8
Total mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)Footnote3 (% in oil) 64.2 64.2 64.4
Total poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)Footnote4 (% in oil) 28.6 28.6 28.4

The 2016 canola crop had a very similar oleic acid content, linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid contents when compared to the 2015 crop (62.6, 18.9 and 9.6% versus 62.6, 18.8 and 9.7% for oleic, linoleic acid, and α linolenic acid respectively). Total saturated fatty acid content for the 2016 canola crop was identical to what was observed in 2015 (6.7 %). This resulted in an identical iodine value for both the 2016 and the 2015 canola crops (113.1 units). Mean free fatty acids average levels in 2016 Canola, No. 1 Canada seed was similar to what was observed in 2014 (0.20% in 2016 versus 0.18% in 2015), however Manitoba average was much higher (0.34%) with some crop district averages higher than 0.5% (data no shown in the report, see annual crop district table on the web).

The 2016 harvest conditions were very difficult. Early to mid-October, heavy precipitation and snow stopped the harvest for over 3 weeks. At the time,  23 and 33% of the canola grown in Saskatchewan and Alberta, respectively, was not harvest. With a break in the weather, a large part of this "snowed-in" canola was harvested in November. These samples were analyzed on their own as most were received after composites were made.  Most of the samples were graded Canola, No. 1, the results of the individual analysis for these  samples will be presented in an additional report on the effect of snow on canola quality published later this year.

It is important to note that the numbers of samples in each grade or province may not be representative of the total production or grade distribution. However, there were sufficient samples to provide good quality information for each province and each grade. Provincial and western Canadian averages were calculated from results for each crop district, weighted by a combination of production by crop district using a 5 year average production (Statistics Canada production estimate) combined with an estimate of grade distribution per crop district.

All oil and protein content values are presented using the Canadian Grain Commission’s historical 8.5% moisture basis in order to permit annual and regional comparisons. Protein content of the oil-free-meal is presented at 12% moisture whereas the glucosinolate content of the oil-free-meal is reported on a dry basis to reflect meal trading rules established by the Canadian Oilseed Processors Association (COPA).

Exports of commercially cleaned canola contained up to 2.5% dockage, which will affect quality factors such as oil content, chlorophyll and free fatty acids.  Canola exports containing over 2.5% dockage are considered not commercially clean (NCC) and will have greater reductions in measured quality components.

Table 6 Canola, No. 1 Canada – Comparison of the quality data of 2016 harvest sample averages with export shipment average
Canola, No. 1 Canada, only 2016 Harvest Sample Program Exports
December 2016 August to November 2016 August to December 2016 Previous year, 2015 to 2016
commernically clean commernically clean not commercially clean commernically clean
Quality parameter
Oil contentFootnote5, % 44.3 43.8 43.5 43.7 43.2
Protein contentFootnote6, % 20.0 20.2 20.5 19.8 20.9
Oil-free protein contentFootnote6, % (at 12% moisture, %) 37.4 37.2 37.5 36.5 38.0
Chlorophyl, milligrams per kilogram seed 11 14 14 12 17
Total glucosinolates of the seed, µmoles/gram seed 10 12 12 13 13
Free fatty acids, % 0.20 0.29 0.32 0.27 0.36
Erucic acid, % in oil 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.02
Oleic acid, % in oil 62.6 62.3 62.6 62.4 62.4
α-linolenic acid, % in oil 9.6 9.9 9.6 9.7 9.9
Total saturated fatty acidsFootnote7, % in oil 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.6
Iodine value 113.1 113.6 113.1 113.2 113.4
Mono-unsaturated fatty acids 64.2 63.9 64.3 64.1 64.1
Poly-unsaturated fatty acids 28.6 28.9 28.5 28.7

28.7

Distinctly green seed, % 0.47 0.50 0.51 0.43 0.80
Dockage, % 0.00 1.77 1.79 2.72 1.99
Loading moisture, % NA 8.8 8.2 8.2 8.03
Number of export samples NA 26 84 2 240
Tonnage NA 901,961 2,660,100 64,529 9,004,301
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