Quality of western Canadian canola 2016 - Fatty acid composition

Fatty acid composition

The average level of erucic acid in the 2016 crop was 0.01%, which is identical to what was observed for the last 5 years (0.02%) (Tables 1 and 5, Figure 12).  Similar to total glucosinolate content, these low values are a direct result of breeding efforts of the Canadian canola industry.

For Canola, No. 1 Canada samples, mean a-linolenic acid (C18:3) was 9.6%, similar to what was observed in 2015 (9.7%) and similar to the 5-year average (9.5%) (Table 1, Figure 13).  This year, the a-linolenic acid averages were lower in Manitoba (9.3%) than in Saskatchewan (9.5%).  Alberta-British Columbia had the highest average (9.9%).  The total content of poly-unsaturated fatty acids or PUFA was 28.7, 28.5 and 28.6% in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta-British Columbia., for a western Canada average of 28.6%.  For canola, the poly-unsaturated fatty acids contents are directly related to the contents of α-linolenic acid (C18:3) and linoleic acid (C18:2).  This year, the ratio omega-6/omega-3 (linoleic acid/α-linolenic acid) was 1.97 compared to 1.94 in 2015.

For Canola, No.1 Canada samples, mean oleic acid (C18:1) content of the 2016 crop was 62.6%, similar to what was observed in 2015 (63.6%) and the 5-year mean (62.7%) (Table 1, Figure 14).  Oleic acid contents were similar in Manitoba (62.4%), Saskatchewan (62.6%) and Alberta-British Columbia (62.6%).  The total content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids or MUFA was 64.0, 64.2 and 64.2% in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta-British Columbia, for a Western Canada average of 64.2%. 

The fatty acid composition (oleic acid, linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid) of the 2016 crop was similar when compared  to the 2015 fatty acid contents).  This led to an identical iodine value average for  both 2016 and 2015, 113.1 units (Figure 15).  For Canola, No. 1 Canada, the iodine value averages were 112.8, 113.0 and 113.3 units for Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta-British Columbia, respectively, reflecting the similar contents in both a-linolenic acid (C18:3) and linoleic acid (C18:2).  The iodine value of individual samples ranged from 107.2 to 118.7, 106.0 to 119.1 and 107.1 to 120.0 units, in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta-British Columbia, respectively.

Samples graded Canola, No. 2 Canada showed higher iodine value averages, with higher linoleic and α-linolenic acid contents and lower oleic acid contents that the samples Canola, No. 1 Canada (Table 5).

Average of saturated fatty acid content was 6.7% in 2016 as in 2015.  Since 2009, the saturated fatty acid content averages varied from 6.6 to 6.9% (Table 1, Figure 18). In 2016, the saturated fatty acid content averages were similar for the 3 provinces, (6.8, 6.7 and 6.7% for Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta-British Columbia, respectively).  Total saturated fatty acids are usually affected by temperature, high temperatures lead to higher oil saturation.

For the first 5 months of the 2016 to 2017 shipping season, α-linolenic acid averages for clean samples ranged from 8.9 to 10.2%, averaging 9.9 and 9.6% in December and in August to November respectively for commercially clean exports(Table 6).  This is similar to what was observed during last shipping season (9.9%).  When compared to last year's average, iodine value averages ranged from 111.6 to 114.5 units (until December 2016) similar to what was observed during the last shipping season (111.3 to 115.1 units).  It is likely that the iodine value will remain similar to what was observed last year.  The level of saturated fatty acids until December 2016 canola (6.7%) exports remained very similar to 2015 to 2016 means (6.6%).  It is expected that levels of erucic acid will remain very low for the new shipping season (below 0.1%) since erucic acid contents were very low in the 2016 harvest.

Figure 13 Canola, No. 1 Canada, erucic acid content of harvest samples, 2000 to 2016

Erucic acid content (% in oil).Details below

  • Details
    Erucic acid content (% in oil), 2000 to 2016
    Year Erucic acid content (% in oil)
    2016 Data
    2015 0.01
    2014 0.01
    2013 0.01
    2012 0.01
    2011 0.01
    2010 0.03
    2009 0.01
    2008 0.01
    2007 0.04
    2006 0.05
    2005 0.06
    2004 0.12
    2003 0.13
    2002 0.11
    2001 0.11
    2000 0.15

Figure 14 Canola, No. 1 Canada, α-linolenic acid content of harvest samples, 2000 to 2016

α-linolenic acid content
(% in oil).Details below

  • Details
    α-linolenic acid content (% in oil), 2000 to 2016
    Year α-linolenic acid content
    (% in oil)
    2016 Data
    2015 9.7
    2014 9.2
    2013 9.1
    2012 9.6
    2011 9.9
    2010 10.4
    2009 9.8
    2008 9.1
    2007 9.8
    2006 9.9
    2005 11.1
    2004 11.2
    2003 8.4
    2002 10.6
    2001 9.4
    2000 9.9

Figure 15 Canola, No. 1 Canada, oleic acid content of harvest samples, 2000 to 2016

Oleic acid content (% in oil).Details below

  • Details
    Oleic acid content (% in oil), 2000 to 2016
    Year Oleic acid content (% in oil)
    2016 Data
    2015 62.6
    2014 62.9
    2013 63.4
    2012 62.5
    2011 62.0
    2010 62.3
    2009 62.3
    2008 63.2
    2007 61.5
    2006 62.1
    2005 59.8
    2004 58.9
    2003 63.2
    2002 60.6
    2001 61.9
    2000 61.5

Figure 16 Canola, No. 1 Canada, linoleic acid content of harvest samples, 2000 to 2016

Linoleic acid content (% in oil).Details below

  • Details
    Linoleic acid content (% in oil), 2000 to 2016
    Year Linoleic acid content (% in oil)
    2016 Data
    2015 18.8
    2014 18.9
    2013 18.5
    2012 19.2
    2011 19.1
    2010 18.9
    2009 18.8
    2008 18.5
    2007 19.3
    2006 18.9
    2005 19.7
    2004 20.3
    2003 18.5
    2002 19.1
    2001 19.1
    2000 19.1

Figure 17 Canola, No. 1 Canada, iodine value of harvest samples, 2000 to 2016

Iodine value (units in oil).Details below

  • Details
    Iodine value (units in oil), 2000 to 2016
    Year Iodine value (units in oil)
    2016 Data
    2015 113.1
    2014 112.3
    2013 111.8
    2012 113.3
    2011 113.6
    2010 115.0
    2009 114.0
    2008 111.5
    2007 113.3
    2006 113.4
    2005 116.1
    2004 117.0
    2003 110.1
    2002 114.7
    2001 112.4
    2000 114.0

Figure 18 Canola, No. 1 Canada, Total saturated fatty acid content of harvest samples, 2000 to 2016

Total saturated fatty acid content.Details below

  • Details
    Total saturated fatty acid content (% in oil)
    Year Total Saturated fatty acid content (% in oil)
    2016 Data
    2015 6.65
    2014 6.74
    2013 6.80
    2012 6.58
    2011 6.80
    2010 6.85
    2009 6.85
    2008 7.09
    2007 6.98
    2006 6.98
    2005 6.96
    2004 6.96
    2003 7.26
    2002 7.03
    2001 7.20
    2000 7.09
Fatty acid composition, total saturate content and iodine value of the oil 2016 Harvest sample program, Canola quality data by grade and province
Relative fatty acid composition of the oil, % Total saturatesFootnote1, % Iodine valueFootnote2, units
C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 C22:1
Canola, No. 1 Canada
Manitoba 1.8 62.4 19.3 9.3 0.00 6.8 112.8
Saskatchewan 1.7 62.6 18.9 9.5 0.01 6.7 113.0
Alberta-British ColumbiaFootnote3 1.7 62.6 18.7 9.9 0.01 6.7 113.3
Western CanadaFootnote4 1.7 62.6 18.9 9.6 0.01 6.7 113.1
Canola, No. 2 Canada
Manitoba 1.9 62.3 18.8 9.4 0.00 6.9 -
Saskatchewan 1.7 61.8 19.3 9.9 0.04 6.8 -
Alberta-British ColumbiaFootnote3 1.7 62.7 18.3 9.8 0.00 6.6 -
Western CanadaFootnote4 1.7 62.3 18.8 9.8 0.01 6.7 113.2
Canola, No. 3 Canada
Western CanadaFootnote4 1.7 60.4 19.8 11.0 0.14 6.4 116.5
Canola, Sample Canada
Western CanadaFootnote4 1.8 62.0 19.3 9.6 0.03 6.9 113.1
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