Barley: Grading factors
Full list of grading factors
- Adhered hulls (ADHULLS)
- Barley of other types (BOOT)
- Broken (BKN)
- Contaminated grain
- Covered smut and false loose smut (SMUT)
- Earth pellets
- Ergot (ERG)
- Excreta (EXCR)
- Extraneous material
- Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)
- Fireburnt (FBNT)
- Frost (FR)
- Fusarium damage (FUS DMG)
- Heated (HTD)
- Inseparable seeds (INSEP SDS)
- Large oil-bearing seeds
- Mildew (MIL)
- Mineral matter (MIN MAT)
- Odour (ODOR)
- Other cereal grains (OCG)
- Peeled and broken (PLD BKN)
- Plump and thin kernels (PLMP, THIN)
- Rotted kernels (ROT KRNL)
- Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)
- Severely mildewed (SEVMIL)
- Smut (SMUT)
- Soft earth pellets (SEP)
- Sprouted (SPTD)
- Stones (STNS)
- Test weight (TWT)
- Thin kernels (THIN)
- Treated seed and other chemical substances
- Varieties with adhered hulls
- Weathered (WEATH)
- Wild oats (WO)
Adhered hulls (ADHULLS)
Adhered hulls are kernels of hulless varieties with hulls that have not been removed during harvesting. See Varieties with adhered hulls.
Barley of other types (BOOT)
In two-row barley, barley of other types is any six-row variety. In six-row barley, barley of other types is any two-row variety.
Broken kernels are pieces that are less than three-quarters of a whole kernel and kernels with the germ end broken off.
Important: Wear gloves and a mask to handle any sample that is suspected of containing contaminated grain.
Grain is contaminated for the purposes of the Canada Grain Act if the grain contains any substance in sufficient quantity that the grain is either
- adulterated for the purposes of the Food and Drugs Act; or
- contaminated within the meaning of the regulations made under section 51 of the Safe Foods for Canadians Act.
If a sample is suspected of being contaminated, the sample should be submitted to the Canadian Grain Commission. Determination as to whether grain is contaminated will be made by the Grain Research Laboratory in consultation with the Chief Grain Inspector for Canada. Samples deemed to be contaminated are graded: Barley, Sample Condemned.
Covered smut and false loose smut (SMUT)
There are no specific numeric tolerances for smut. In evaluating smut as a grading factor, consider
- The degree of smut tag on the kernels
- The number of pieces of covered smut left in the cleaned sample
|If the sample:||Then the grade is:|
|Contains about 5K of covered smut and no tagged kernels||Barley, Select Malting CW/CE Two-row/Six-row||Barley, Select Food CW/CE Two-row/Six-row||Barley, number 1 CW/CE|
|Contains many pieces of covered smut and smut-tagged kernels||Barley, Sample Select Malting CW/CE Two-row/Six-row, Account Smut||Barley, Sample Select Food CW/CE Two-row/Six-row Account Smut||Barley, number 2 CW/CE|
|Is severely contaminated||Barley, Sample Select Malting CW/CE Two-row/Six-row, Account Smut||Barley, Sample Select Food CW/CE Two-row/Six-row Account Smut||Barley, Sample CW/CE, Account Smut|
Note: If hulless grades, add “Hulless” to the grade name
Ergot is a plant disease producing elongated fungal bodies with a purplish-black exterior, a purplish-white to off-white interior, and a relatively smooth surface texture.
Excrement from any animal including mammals, birds and insects.
Important : Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain excreta.
Can be defined as glass, metal, wood, plastic or any other material not already defined in the Official Grain Grading Guide.
Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)
Fertilizer pellets are a manufactured plant nutrient product used by producers in the production of grain. They are typically small, round or irregular shaped and usually white, grey, brown, pink or reddish in colour.
- Handpick any fertilizer pellets and determine the concentration basis the net working sample.
- Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when the concentration does not exceed 1.0% of the net sample weight.
- Samples containing fertilizer pellets in excess of 1.0% of the net sample weight are graded Barley, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.
Fireburnt kernels charred or scorched by fire. A cross-section of a fireburnt kernel resembles charcoal with numerous air holes. The air holes result in a low weight kernel which crumbles easily under pressure.
For varieties with hulls—frost-damaged kernels have distinctly indented backs, and usually a loose hull. Kernels with a light wrinkling from frost are not considered frost-damaged.
For hulless varieties—frost-damaged kernels have severe wrinkling and translucent endosperms.
Important : Determine frost-damaged kernels and Peeled and broken prior to sizing the sample. Sizing tends to peel kernels.
Procedures—Malting and food grades
- Use a representative portion of at least 25 grams of the cleaned sample.
- Determine the percentage of frost-damaged kernels.
Fusarium damage (FUS DMG)
Fusarium-damaged kernels of barley are discoloured by pink, orange or black encrustations of fusarium mould. Under magnification, the black encrustations appear raised above the surface of the kernel and are surrounded by a white mould. The black encrustations can be scraped off.
Some degree of judgment is required when identifying kernels with the fusarium mould. Only those kernels which meet this description are to be designated as fusarium damaged.
Confirm the presence of fusarium mould using a 10-power magnifying lens.
Heated kernels have the colour or odour typical of grain that has deteriorated in storage or has been damaged by artificial drying. The hull over the germ of the heated kernels often appears discoloured, usually to a golden brown.
- A representative portion of the cleaned sample is passed through a barley pearler for up to 10 seconds. When the hull is removed by pearling the germ appears red or brown. As the degree of heat damage increases, a greater portion of the pearled kernel exhibits the red discolouration.
- Heated seeds of other grains are included in the tolerance for Heated.
Inseparable seeds (INSEP SDS)
Inseparable seeds are those not removed by the cleaning process, usually large seeds including grains other than cereal grains, such as peas, beans, corn, flaxseed and domestic buckwheat.
- Assess as dockage if they are removed by Cleaning for grade improvement.
- Malting grades may not contain any large oil-bearing seeds such as sunflower seeds, safflower seeds or soybeans.
Large oil-bearing seeds
Large oil-bearing seeds are special crop seeds that may be crushed for oil. They may include sunflower, safflower or soybeans.
Mildew is a fungal condition that develops in unthreshed grain usually under conditions of excessive moisture. The affected kernels are grayish in colour and lower in quality. In the evaluation of mildew, consider the number of affected kernels and their severity. See Severely mildewed.
Mineral matter (MIN MAT)
Mineral matter refers to stones, earth pellets, fertilizer and screening pellets that may be found in samples of grain.
There is no numeric tolerance for odour. Consider
- The basic quality of the sample
- The type and degree of the odour
- The presence of visible residue causing the odour
|If odour is the grade determinant and there is:||Then the grade is:|
|A distinct, objectionable odour, not associated with the quality of the grain, but not heated or fireburnt||Barley, Sample Select Malting CW/CE Two-row/Six-row Account Odour
Barley, Sample Select Food CW/CE Account Odour
Barley, Sample CW/CE Account Odour
|A distinct, heated odour||Barley, Sample Select Malting CW/CE Two-row/Six-row Account Heated
Barley, Sample Select Food CW/CE Account Heated
Barley, Sample CW/CE Account Heated
|A distinct, fireburnt odour||Barley, Sample Select Malting CW/CE Two-row/Six-row Account Fireburnt
Barley, Sample Select Food CW/CE Account Fireburnt
Barley, Sample CW/CE Account Fireburnt
Note: If hulless grade add “Hulless” to the grade name
Other cereal grains (OCG)
Other cereal grains include wheat, rye, oats or triticale remaining in the cleaned sample. For grading purposes, spelt and Kamut® are considered as Other cereal grains in samples of barley.
Peeled and broken (PLD BKN)
Peeled kernels are kernels with at least one of the following characteristics:
- One-third or more of the hull is removed, including kernels of hulless barley
- The germ is fully exposed
- The hull is badly frayed or ruptured over the germ end without evidence of germination
- The hull is removed along both edges
Broken kernels are pieces of kernels that are less than three-quarters of a whole kernel and kernels with the germ end broken off.
Important : Determine peeled and broken and frost-damaged kernels prior to sizing the sample. Sizing tends to peel kernels.
Plump and thin kernels (PLMP, THIN)
The process for determining plump and thin kernels is called sizing.
- Plump kernels are kernels that remain on top of or lodged in the number 6 slotted sieve.
- Thin kernels are kernels that pass through the number 5 slotted sieve.
- These are a characteristic of malting barley.
Important : Determine frost-damaged kernels and peeled and broken prior to sizing the sample. Sizing tends to peel kernels.
- Using a Boerner-type divider, divide a representative portion of not less than 250 grams from the cleaned sample.
- Set the Carter dockage tester as follows:
Specifications for the Carter dockage tester: Feed control number 5 Air control Off Riddle None Top sieve number 6 slotted Centre sieve number 5 slotted Bottom sieve Blank tray Sieve cleaner control Off
- Pass the representative portion through the Carter dockage tester once.
- When most of the sample has passed over the sieves, turn on the sieve cleaner control for 5 kicks of the machine to loosen lodged kernels.
Important : Do not rap sieves in the machine to loosen lodged kernels.
- Remove each sieve carefully from the machine.
- Remove lodged kernels from each sieve. Add them to the barley that passed over that sieve.
- Weigh separately
- Plump kernels on top of or lodged in number 6 slotted sieve
- Thin kernels that passed through the number 5 slotted sieve
Rotted kernels (ROT KRNL)
Rotted kernels are discoloured, swollen, soft and spongy as a result of decomposition by fungi or bacteria. Consider rotted kernels in combination with severely mildewed and heated.
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a fungus producing hard masses of fungal tissue, called sclerotia. The sclerotia vary in size and shape, have a coarse surface texture, vary in exterior color from dark black to gray to white and have a pure white interior.
Severely mildewed (SEVMIL)
Severe mildew refers to kernels that are severely blackened by mildew. See Mildew. Consider severe mildew in combination with rotted and heated kernels.
Soft earth pellets (SEP)
Soft earth pellets are
- Earth pellets that crumble into fine dust under light pressure, using a finger only—if they do not crumble, they are considered Stones
- Any non-toxic material of similar consistency
- Handpick soft earth pellets from a representative portion of the cleaned sample.
- Soft earth pellets constituting 10.0% or less of the sample are assessed as dockage.
- Where soft earth pellets represent more than 10% of the net weight, the sample is graded Barley, Sample CW/CE Account Admixture.
Sprouted kernels show definite signs of germination.
Procedures for malting grades (covered barley only)
- Select a representative portion of not less than 25 grams.
- Pass the sample through the pearler for 2 or 3 seconds.
- Analyse the lightly pearled sample for evidence of germination.
Food, general purpose and hulless grades
Analyse without pearling.
Stones are hard shale, coal, hard earth pellets, and any other non toxic materials of similar consistency. Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when constituting 1.0% or less of the net sample weight. (See Fertilizer pellets for specific procedures to be followed when samples contain fertilizer pellets.)
- Handpick stones from a representative portion of the cleaned sample.
- Determine stone concentration in the net sample.
- In western Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of “basic grade” tolerances, up to 2.5% are graded Barley, Rejected “basic grade” Account Stones. The “basic grade” refers to a grade established in the Canada Grain Regulations (grades listed in the first column in grade determinant tables) that would have been assigned to the sample if it contained no stones.
- In eastern Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of grade tolerances are degraded to lower grades. Samples containing stones in excess of the tolerance of the lowest grade established by regulation up to 2.5% are graded Barley, Sample Canada Eastern Account Stones.
- In western and eastern Canada grain containing more than 2.5% stones is graded Barley, Sample Salvage.
Examples: Western Canada
Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Barley, CW General Purpose Grade name Stones % number 2 CW 0.15
- Basic grade: Barley, number 2 CW
- Reason for basic grade: Stained
Grade in Western Canada if stones found If the above sample contained Grade in western Canada 0.5% stones Barley, Rejected number 2 CW Account Stones 3.0% stones Barley, Sample Salvage
Examples: Eastern Canada
Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Barley, CE General Purpose Grade name Stones % number 2 CE 0.15
- Basic grade: Barley, number 2 CE
- Reason for basic grade: Stained
Grade in Eastern Canada if stones found If the above sample contained Grade in eastern Canada 0.5% stones Barley, Sample CE Account Stones 3.0% stones Barley, Sample Salvage
Test weight (TWT)
Test weight is the weight of a known volume of grain expressed in kilograms per hectolitre. For procedures, see Chapter 1 of this guide, Test weight. If a barley sample contains kernels with attached awns that reduce the test weight and affect the grade, see procedures for Cleaning for grade improvement.
Thin kernels (THIN)
The process of determining the percentage by weight of thin kernels is called sizing. For sizing of malting barley, see Plump and thin kernels.
Thin kernels are kernels that pass through the number 5 slotted sieve. These are a characteristic of malting barley.
Important: Determine frost-damaged kernels and peeled and broken first. Then size the sample. Sizing tends to peel kernels.
For hulless grades only—the general appearance of the sample and factors other than size are taken into account in grading. Samples scant in sizing requirements but otherwise sound are given the benefit of the doubt in grading.
- Obtain a representative portion of not less than 250 grams of the cleaned sample.
- Set the Carter dockage tester as follows:
Specifications for the Carter dockage tester: Feed control number 5 Air control Off Riddle None Top sieve None Centre sieve number 5 slotted Bottom sieve Blank tray Sieve cleaner control Off
- Run the representative portion through the Carter dockage tester once.
- When the bulk of the sample has passed over the sieves, turn on the sieve cleaner control for only 5 kicks of the machine to loosen lodged kernels.
Important: Do not rap sieves in the machine to loosen lodged kernels.
- Weigh thin kernels that pass through the number 5 slotted sieve.
Treated seed and other chemical substances
Treated seed is grain that has been adulterated with an agricultural chemical for agronomic purposes. The types of agricultural chemicals used to treat seed include pesticides, fungicides and inoculants. These seed dressings contain a dye to render the treated seed visually conspicuous. The colour of the dye varies depending upon the type of treatment and the type of grain. The current Canadian colour standard for pesticide and fungicide seed treatments for cereal (including corn) is red or pink. The colour standard for pesticide and fungicide seed treatments for canola is blue; however, green has also been used. Pulse crop (including soybeans) pesticide and fungicide seed treatments are typically blue or green. The coatings or stains may appear greasy or powdery and the surface area covered may range from tiny flecks to complete coverage.
Other chemical substances
Other chemical substances refers to any chemical residues either adhering to the kernel or remaining in the sample and to samples having a chemical odour of any kind.
Important: Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain contaminated grain
If a sample is suspected of being coated with a pesticide, desiccant, inoculant or if the sample contains evidence of any foreign chemical substance other than fertilizer pellets, the sample shall be graded Oats, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.
Varieties with adhered hulls (VARADHHLS)
For select food hulless barley—varieties with adhered hulls are considered as Other cereal grains.
For general purpose hulless barley—varieties with adhered hulls are any kernels of non-hulless varieties.
Weathered kernels are discoloured by weathering to a very deep yellow or light brown. Severely weathered kernels are severely discoloured. They may be dark brown, heavily stained or distinctly bleached and may also be mildewed. Consider the number of affected kernels and their condition when you assess the general colour of the sample.
Wild oats (WO)
Wild oats is an annual grassy weed. The seeds vary in colour from white to black. They are normally more slender than domestic oats, and have a slanting, circular depressed scar, sometimes called a sucker mouth, at the base, and a bent twisted awn.
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