Visual identification of small oilseeds and weed seed contaminants - Bibliography


  1. Allison, Ken. “Identification of seeds of Galium species found in seed samples.” AOSA Newsletter 71,3 (September 1997): 63-68.
  2. Berggren, Greta. Atlas of Seeds and small fruits of Northwest-European plant species Vol. 2 & 3. Stockholm Sweden: Berlingska Boktryckeriet Lund (Vol.2), Berlings Arlov (Vol.3), 1969.
  3. The Canada Gazette. Part II. Vol. 120, No. 17 (20 August 1986). SOR/86-836. Seeds Act: Weed Seeds Order, 1986.
  4. Canadian Grain Commission. Official Grain Grading Guide. Winnipeg, Canada: Canadian Grain Commission, August 1, 2000.
  5. Cooke, Louise, ed. “Seed Analysis for Grain Inspectors”. Illus. by Norma Vidal. Winnipeg, Canada: Canadian Grain Commission, circa 1990. (Internal training manual, no longer in print).
  6. Delorit, R. J. Illustrated Taxonomy Manual of Weed Seeds. River Falls, Wisconsin: Agronomy Publications, Wisconsin State University, 1970.
  7. Felfoldi, Elizabeth M. Identifying the Weeds Around You. North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Victorian Government Printing Office Department of Agriculture, 1985.
  8. Malik, N. and W. H. Vanden Born. 1988. The biology of Canadian weeds. 86. Galium aparine L. and Galium spurium L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 68: 481-499.
  9. Mitch, Larry W. 1996. Intriguing World of Weeds, Flixweed (Descurainia sophia). Weed Tech. 10: 974-977.
  10. Montgomery, F. H. Seeds and fruits of plants of eastern Canada and northeastern United States. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1977.
  11. Mulligan, Gerald A. Common and botanical names of weeds in Canada. (1397/B) Ottawa, Canada: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1992.
  12. Owen, C.H. and M.M. Ainslie. Handbook on Varietal Identification by Kernel Characters of Barley, Wheat and Small Oilseeds Part III. Ottawa, Canada: Minister of Agriculture, Canadian Grain Commission, 1971.
  13. USDA, ARS. GRIN/NPGS Taxonomy information [Web Page]. Available at: Taxonomy for plants.


Black and white drawings. A tool for assisting grain inspectors in seed identification related to grain grading of small oilseeds crops. Text by Karen Bell. Illustrations by Norma Vidal. Edited by Steve Symons.

Previously published as: Handbook on Varietal Identification by Kernel Characters of Barley, Wheat and Small Oilseeds; Part III. by C.H. Owen and M.M. Ainslie: Minister of Agriculture, Canadian Grain Commission; Ottawa, Canada; 1971.

Users should be aware that weed seeds discussed in the bulletin represent a very small number of species of weed seeds that could potentially occur in oilseeds crops. The weed seeds discussed in this bulletin were selected based on being problematic in grain cleaning, end product quality or similarities in visual seed identification to oilseeds crops or other weed seeds of concern.

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