Quality of western Canadian mustard 2013

Quality of Domestic Mustard Seed: Oriental and Brown

Oil, protein and glucosinolate content for oriental and brown mustard is summarized by grade in Table 2. Comparisons to previous years’ data are in Figures 2, 3 and 5.

Mean fixed oil content (44.9%) in Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada was higher than the mean in 2012 (41.4%) (Figure 2). Meanwhile, mean crude protein content (24.2%) was lower than the 2012 mean (26.4%) (Figure 2). Fixed oil content in samples of Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada from producers ranged from 39.4 to 49.1%, whereas protein content ranged from 20.8 to 28.7% (Table 2).

Figure 2 – Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada - Oil and protein content of harvest survey samples, 2003-2013
Bar graph of oriental mustard oil and protein content of harvest survey samples, details in table below
Table: Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada - Oil and protein content of harvest survey samples, 2003-2013
Year Oil Protein
2003 39.2 28.1
2004 44.4 25.1
2005 42.7 26.2
2006 41.8 26.6
2007 37.6 28.6
2008 42.0 27.1
2009 43.4 26.3
2010 43.4 26.2
2011 43.5 25.2
2012 41.4 26.4
2013 44.9 24.2
Ten-year average 41.9 26.6

Mean fixed oil content (39.5%) in Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada was higher than the mean in 2012 (36.7%). Meanwhile, mean crude protein content (26.3%) was lower than the 2012 mean (27.6%) (Figure 3). Fixed oil content in samples of Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada from producers ranged from 35.1 to 43.7% while the protein content ranged from 21.2 to 30.2% (Table 2).

Figure 3 – Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada - Oil and protein content of harvest survey samples, 2003-2013
Bar graph of brown mustard oil and protein content of harvest survey samples, details in table below
Table: Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada - Oil and protein content of harvest survey samples, 2003-2013
Year Oil Protein
2003 38.3 27.2
2004 41.6 24.8
2005 40.6 25.7
2006 39.8 26.0
2007 36.5 27.7
2008 38.8 27.6
2009 40.2 27.1
2010 39.6 27.5
2011 38.8 26.9
2012 36.7 27.6
2013 39.5 26.3
Ten-year average 39.1 26.8

Glucosinolate content in Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada was 108 micromoles per gram, a decrease from the value in 2012 (117 micromoles per gram) (Figure 5). The value for Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada (96 micromoles per gram) was also lower than the value for 2012 (105 micromoles per gram) (Figure 5). Glucosinolate content in samples of Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada from producers ranged from 90 to 137 micromoles per gram. Glucosinolate content in samples of Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada from producers ranged from 78 to 119 micromoles per gram (Table 2).

Figure 5 – Oriental and Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada - Glucosinolate content of harvest survey samples, 2003-2013
Bar graph of oriental and brown mustard glucosinolate content of harvest survey samples, details in table below
Table: Oriental and Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada - Glucosinolate content of harvest survey samples, 2003-2013
Year Oriental Brown
2003 142 113
2004 123 109
2005 130 108
2006 131 108
2007 143 114
2008 124 113
2009 119 112
2010 123 111
2011 113 100
2012 117 105
2013 108 96
Ten-year average 126 109

Fatty acid composition of oriental and brown mustard composites is provided in Table 3.

Erucic acid (C22:1) levels for Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada (22.2%) and Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada (23.4%) were similar to 2012 values (21.4% and 23.5% respectively for 2012). These values for oriental and brown mustard are typical of Brassica juncea condiment mustards. Two oriental mustard varieties, Forge and Cutlass, are compared. Forge had higher oleic acid values (C18:1) than Cutlass (24.7% versus 20.2%), and higher linoleic acid values (C18:2) (21.9% versus 20.4%), but lower erucic acid content (C22:1) (19.6% versus 24.0%).

Total saturated fatty acids for both Oriental and Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada composites was 5.8%, which was lower than last year’s values of 6.1% and 6.0%, respectively. There were only small changes in the levels of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid (C:18:3). As a result, the iodine value (an indicator of oil unsaturation) was similar to 2012 values for oriental (118 units) and brown (120 units) mustard.

Chlorophyll content of oriental and brown mustard composites is provided in Table 4. Chlorophyll content was 1.5 and 2.8 milligrams per kilogram for Oriental and Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada, respectively (Figure 6). The lower grades in both types had higher levels of chlorophyll, ranging from 3.4 to 14.2 milligrams per kilogram. Chlorophyll content for Oriental and Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada was slightly lower compared to the 4-year mean of 1.9 and 3.5 milligrams per kilogram, respectively (Figure 6).

Figure 6 – Oriental, Brown and Yellow Mustard, No. 1 Canada - Chlorophyll content of harvest survey samples, 2009-2013
Bar graph of oriental, brown and yellow mustard chlorophyll content of harvest survey samples, details in table below
Table: Oriental, Brown and Yellow Mustard, No. 1 Canada - Chlorophyll content of harvest survey samples, 2009-2013
Year Oriental Brown Yellow
2009 2.5 3.6 1.1
2010 1.5 4.7 0.8
2011 1.6 3.2 0.6
2012 2.1 2.5 1.0
2013 1.5 2.8 0.6
Average 2009-2012 1.9 3.5 0.9
Table 2 – Quality of 2013 western Canadian mustard

Domestic Mustard Seed, Canada, Oriental

Grade No. of samples Oil content %Footnote 1 Protein content %Footnote 2 Glucosinolate content µmoles/gFootnote 3
Mean Min. Max. Mean Min. Max. Mean Min. Max.
No. 1 - Western Canada (Saskatchewan) 30 44.9 39.4 49.1 24.2 20.8 28.7 108 90 137
No. 2 4 42.7 38.8 46.0 25.8 23.0 28.5 118 108 135
No. 3 2 43.9 42.5 45.3 25.0 23.7 26.2 114 112 116
No. 4 3 42.5 40.5 43.5 25.9 24.4 27.9 121 109 135
Sample 4 41.7 40.6 43.4 26.3 25.0 28.4 119 115 122
Cutlass, No. 1 15 45.5 39.4 49.1 24.1 20.8 27.8 106 90 129
Forge, No. 1 11 45.2 41.0 46.9 23.3 21.5 28.2 107 95 137

Domestic Mustard Seed, Canada, Brown

Grade No. of samples Oil content %Footnote 1 Protein content %Footnote 2 Glucosinolate content µmoles/gFootnote 3
Mean Min. Max. Mean Min. Max. Mean Min. Max.
No. 1 - Western Canada 58 39.5 35.1 43.7 26.3 21.2 30.2 96 78 119
Saskatchewan 51 39.4 35.9 42.7 26.4 22.9 29.6 97 78 119
Alberta 7 40.0 35.1 43.7 25.7 21.2 30.2 94 78 109
No. 2 4 38.6 33.8 40.6 25.9 23.9 28.6 103 90 126
No. 3 4 39.3 37.6 41.2 26.3 25.6 27.2 94 87 103
No. 4 1 36.1 36.1 36.1 29.0 29.0 29.0 101 101 101
Sample 6 39.0 35.5 43.7 27.5 24.0 30.7 92 87 99
Centennial Br., No. 1 42 38.9 35.1 41.5 26.9 23.9 30.2 97 83 119
Common Br., No. 1 5 40.9 39.6 41.8 25.2 23.3 26.8 94 86 103
Duchess, No. 1 4 40.7 37.7 42.7 25.3 22.9 28.6 93 78 104

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Dry matter basis.

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Footnote 2

% N x 6.25; dry matter basis.

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Footnote 3

Total glucosinolates (µmoles/g); dry matter basis - ISO 9167-3:2007 (Glucose Release).

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Table 3 – Fatty acid composition of 2013 western Canadian mustard

Domestic Mustard Seed, Canada, Oriental

Category No. of samples Fatty acid composition (%)Footnote 4 Saturated fatty acidsFootnote 5 Iodine value
C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 C22:1
No. 1 – Western Canada (Saskatchewan) 30 1.5 21.9 21.2 12.8 22.2 5.8 118
No. 2 4 1.4 19.8 21.2 13.3 23.5 5.7 119
No. 3 2 1.4 19.5 20.6 13.6 23.9 5.6 119
No. 4 3 1.4 20.0 21.9 13.5 22.8 5.6 120
Sample 4 1.5 22.6 23.5 12.9 19.9 5.9 121
Cutlass, No. 1 15 1.4 20.2 20.4 13.0 24.0 5.7 118
Forge, No. 1 11 1.7 24.7 21.9 12.4 19.6 6.1 118

Domestic Mustard Seed, Canada, Brown

Category No. of samples Fatty acid composition (%)Footnote 4 Saturated fatty acidsFootnote 5 Iodine value
C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 C22:1
No. 1 – Western Canada 58 1.3 19.4 20.4 14.1 23.4 5.8 120
Saskatchewan 51 1.3 19.2 20.4 14.1 23.5 5.8 120
Alberta 7 1.4 20.6 20.5 13.6 22.9 5.9 119
No. 2 4 1.3 19.4 20.3 14.1 23.3 5.9 120
No. 3 4 1.3 19.1 20.1 14.3 23.7 5.7 120
No. 4 1 1.4 16.2 22.4 14.6 23.9 6.1 122
Sample 6 1.4 20.2 21.0 14.0 22.9 5.8 120
Centennial Brown, No. 1 42 1.3 19.1 20.5 14.2 23.6 5.7 120
Common Brown, No. 1 5 1.3 19.4 19.9 14.2 23.6 5.7 120
Duchess, No. 1 4 1.4 19.8 20.6 14.1 23.0 5.9 120

Footnotes

Footnote 4

Percentage of total fatty acids including: stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), erucic (C22:1).

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Footnote 5

Saturated fatty acids are defined as the sum of C16:0, C18:0, C20:0, C22:0, and C24:0.

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Table 4 – Chlorophyll Content and DGR in 2013 western Canadian mustard

Domestic Mustard Seed, Canada, Oriental

Category No. of samples Chlorophyll mg/kg Distinctly green (% DGR)Footnote 6 % DGR range
No. 1 - Western Canada (Saskatchewan) 30 1.5 0.08 0.0-1.2
No. 2 4 3.4 0.16 0.0-0.8
No. 3 2 3.6 0.00 0.0
No. 4 3 3.7 0.00 0.0
Sample 4 4.0 0.00 0.0
Cutlass, No. 1 15 1.3    
Forge, No. 1 11 1.1    

Domestic Mustard Seed, Canada, Brown

Category No. of samples Chlorophyll mg/kg Distinctly green (% DGR)Footnote 6 % DGR range
No. 1 - Western Canada 58 2.8 0.12 0.0-1.5
Saskatchewan 51 2.9 0.13 0.0-1.5
Alberta 7 2.2 0.00 0.0
No. 2 4 6.5 0.25 0.0-1.0
No. 3 4 7.4 0.83 0.0-2.9
No. 4 1 7.8 0.00 0.0
Sample 6 14.2 1.97 0.0-5.4
Centennial Brown, No. 1 42 2.9    
Common Brown, No. 1 5 2.1    
Duchess, No. 1 4 5.9    

Footnotes

Footnote 6

Distinctly green tolerance is applied to crushed seeds which are a distinct green throughout. Pale green or immature seeds are taken into account in the evaluation of colour. The % DGR results are the averages of the individual samples included in the composite.

Return to footnote 6 referrer