Quality of western Canadian mustard 2014

Quality of domestic mustard seed: Oriental and Brown

Oil, protein and glucosinolate content for oriental and brown mustard is summarized by grade in Table 2. Comparisons to previous years' data are in Figures 2, 3 and 4.

Mean fixed oil content (42.7 %) in Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada was lower than the mean in 2013 (44.9%) (Figure 2). Meanwhile, mean crude protein content (25.5%) was higher than the 2013 mean (24.2%) (Figure 2). Fixed oil content in samples of Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada from producers ranged from 37.9 to 46.2%, whereas protein content ranged from 22.1 to 30.2% (Table 2).

Table 2. Quality of 2014 western Canadian mustard: Oriental and Brown
Grade No. of samples Oil content % Footnote 1 Protein content % Footnote 2 Glucosinolate content µmole/g Footnote 3
Mean Min. Max. Mean Min. Max. Mean Min. Max.
Domestic mustard seed, Canada, Oriental
No. 1 - Average 58 42.7 37.9 46.2 25.5 22.1 30.2 109 88 128
  Saskatchewan 53 42.7 37.9 46.2 25.5 22.1 30.2 109 88 128
  Alberta 5 42.2 41.3 43.4 25.4 23.9 26.2 111 99 124
No. 2 6 42.1 40.4 43.7 26.5 24.3 28.8 115 102 124
No. 4 4 42.0 41.4 43.0 25.9 24.4 26.9 115 104 127
Cutlass, No. 1 33 42.8 37.9 46.2 25.9 22.1 30.2 109 88 128
Forge, No. 1 20 42.6 40.1 45.0 24.7 22.4 27.6 110 93 124
Domestic mustard seed, Canada, Brown
No. 1 - Average 94 37.9 33.8 41.2 26.8 21.2 30.2 99 84 119
  Saskatchewan 80 38.1 34.4 41.2 26.6 23.6 29.4 98 84 119
  Alberta 14 36.9 33.8 39.0 27.7 21.2 30.2 106 97 118
No. 2 2 37.7 36.6 38.7 26.6 25.4 27.7 98 93 103
Sample 2 38.4 36.9 39.9 25.1 24.5 25.6 91 83 100
Centennial Br., No. 1 38 37.8 33.8 40.9 26.9 23.6 31.2 100 91 119
Duchess, No. 1 9 37.6 34.9 39.0 26.9 25.1 29.8 102 97 113

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Dry matter basis

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

% N x 6.25; dry matter basis

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Footnote 3

Total glucosinolates (µmoles/g); dry matter basis - ISO 9167-3:2007 (Glucose Release).

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Figure 2. Oriental mustard, No. 1 Canada
Oil and protein content of harvest samples, 2004-2014

Graph - Oil and protein content of Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada, 2004-2014. Details below.

Data for figure 2. Oriental mustard, No. 1 Canada - Oil and protein content of harvest samples, 2004-2014
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 ten-year average
Oil 44.4 42.7 41.8 37.6 42.0 43.4 43.4 43.5 41.4 44.9 42.7 42.5
Protein 25.1 26.2 26.6 28.6 27.1 26.3 26.2 25.2 26.4 24.2 25.5 26.2

Mean fixed oil content (37.9%) in Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada was lower than the mean in 2013 (39.5%). Meanwhile, mean crude protein content (26.8%) was higher than the 2013 mean (26.3%) (Figure 3). Fixed oil content in samples of Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada from producers ranged from 33.8 to 41.2% while the protein content ranged from 21.2 to 30.2% (Table 2).

Figure 3. Brown mustard, No. 1 Canada
Oil and protein content of harvest samples, 2004-2014

Graph - Oil and protein content of Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada, 2004-2014. Details below.

Data for figure 3. Brown mustard, No. 1 Canada - Oil and protein content of harvest samples, 2004-2014
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 ten-year average
Oil 41.6 40.6 39.8 36.5 38.8 40.2 39.6 38.8 36.7 39.5 37.9 39.1
Protein 24.8 25.7 26.0 27.7 27.6 27.1 27.5 26.9 27.6 26.3 26.8 26.8

Glucosinolate content in Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada was 109 micromoles per gram, a similar value to 2013 (108 micromoles per gram) (Figure 4). The value for Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada (99 micromoles per gram) was slightly higher than the value for 2013 (96 micromoles per gram) (Figure 4). Glucosinolate content in samples of Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada from producers ranged from 88 to 128 micromoles per gram. Glucosinolate content in samples of Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada from producers ranged from 84 to 119 micromoles per gram (Table 2).

Figure 4. Oriental and Brown mustard, No. 1 Canada
Glucosinolate content of harvest samples, 2004-2014

Graph - Glucosinolate content of Oriental and Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada, 2004-2014. Details below.

Data for figure 4. Oriental and Brown mustard, No. 1 Canada - Glucosinolate content of harvest samples, 2004-2014
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 ten-year average
Oriental 123 130 131 143 124 119 123 113 117 108 109 123
Brown 109 108 108 114 113 112 111 100 105 96 99 107

Fatty acid composition of oriental and brown mustard composites is provided in Table 3. Erucic acid (C22:1) levels for Oriental Mustard, No. 1 Canada (21.8%) and Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada (23.2%) were slightly lower than the 2013 values (22.2% and 23.4% respectively for 2013). These values for oriental and brown mustard are typical of Brassica juncea condiment mustards.

Total saturated fatty acids for both Oriental and Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada composites was 6.0%, which was slightly higher than last year's values of 5.8%. There were only small changes in the levels of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid (C18:3). As a result, the iodine value (an indicator of oil unsaturation) was similar to 2013 values for both oriental and brown mustard at 119 units.

Chlorophyll content of oriental and brown mustard composites is provided in Table 4. Chlorophyll content was 2.4 and 2.9 milligrams per kilogram for Oriental and Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada, respectively (Figure 5). The lower grades in both types had higher levels of chlorophyll, ranging from 1.2 to 7.3 milligrams per kilogram.

Table 3. Fatty acid composition of 2014 western Canadian mustard
Category No. of samples Fatty acid composition (%)Footnote 4 Saturated fatty acidsFootnote 5 Iodine value
C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 C22:1
Domestic mustard seed, Canada, Oriental
No. 1 - Average 58 1.5 21.9 22.1 12.4 21.8 6.0 119
  Saskatchewan 53 1.5 21.7 22.0 12.5 22.1 6.0 119
  Alberta 5 1.6 24.5 23.6 11.9 19.1 6.1 119
No. 2 6 1.5 21.1 22.0 12.8 22.3 5.9 119
No. 4 4 1.5 21.0 22.2 12.5 22.4 6.0 119
Cutlass, No. 1 33 1.4 20.4 21.4 12.5 23.4 5.9 118
Forge, No. 1 20 1.6 24.8 23.3 12.0 18.8 6.1 119
Domestic mustard seed, Canada, Brown
No. 1 - Average 94 1.2 19.8 21.2 13.2 23.2 6.0 119
  Saskatchewan 80 1.3 19.7 21.2 13.3 23.2 6.0 119
  Alberta 14 1.2 19.9 21.0 13.2 23.3 6.0 119
No. 2 2 1.3 20.1 22.0 13.6 22.4 6.1 120
Sample 2 1.4 20.5 21.6 13.0 22.4 6.2 119
Centennial Br., No. 1 38 1.2 19.8 21.0 13.2 23.2 6.0 119
Duchess, No. 1 9 1.2 19.2 21.2 13.3 23.6 6.0 119

Footnotes

Footnote 4

Percentage of total fatty acids including: stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3), erucic (C22:1)

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Footnote 5

Saturated fatty acids are defined as the sum of C16:0, C18:0, C20:0, C22:0, and C24:0.

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Table 4. Chlorophyll content and distinctly green range in 2014 western Canadian mustard
Category No. of samples Chlorophyll mg/kg Distinctly green (% DGR) Footnote 6 DGR range (%)
Domestic mustard seed, Canada, Oriental
No. 1 - Average 58 2.4 0.19 0 - 0.8
  Saskatchewan 53 2.5 0.20 0 - 0.8
  Alberta 5 1.2 0.08 0 - 0.4
No. 2 6 1.3 0.10 0 - 0.2
No. 4 4 3.7 0 0
Cutlass, No. 1 33 2.8
Forge, No. 1 20 2.5
Domestic mustard seed, Canada, Brown
No. 1 - Average 94 2.9 0.06 0 - 1.2
  Saskatchewan 80 3.0 0.06 0 - 1.2
  Alberta 14 2.2 0.04 0 - 0.4
No. 2 2 7.3 0.30 0 - 0.6
Sample 2 6.0 0 0
Centennial Br., No. 1 38 3.3
Duchess, No. 1 9 3.7

Footnotes

Footnote 6

Distinctly green tolerances are applied to crushed seeds which are a distinct green throughout. Pale green or immature seeds are taken into account in the evaluation of colour. The % DGR results are the averages of the individual samples included in the composite.

Return to footnote 6 referrer

Figure 5. Oriental, Brown and Yellow Mustard, No. 1 Canada
Chlorophyll content of harvest samples, 2009-2014

Graph - Chlorophyll content of Oriental and Brown Mustard, No. 1 Canada, 2009-2014. Details below.

Data for figure 5. Oriental, Brown and Yellow mustard, No. 1 Canada - Chlorophyll content of harvest samples, 2009-2014
  2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Average 2009-2013
Oriental 2.5 1.5 1.6 2.1 1.5 2.4 1.8
Brown 3.6 4.7 3.2 2.5 2.8 2.9 3.4
Yellow 1.1 0.8 0.6 1.0 0.6 0.9 0.8