Wheat - Chapter 4 | Official Grain Grading Guide

Grading factors

Important:

Images may vary in appearance due to factors such as monitor settings, viewing distance/angle and surrounding light.

Artificial stain (ART STND)

Artificial stain (ART STND)

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain hazardous substances.

Artificial stain

  • Includes any nontoxic stain on kernels caused by contact with foreign substances such as dye, oil, grease, paint, or soot
  • Does not include any stain considered a natural stain
  • Does not include any stain caused by coming into contact with poisonous substances, or any stain that could be considered Contaminated grain
Important:

If you are uncertain about the identity of the stain, treat the sample as Contaminated grain.

Binburnt kernels (BBT)

Binburnt kernels (BBT)

Binburnt kernels are blackened as a result of severe heating in storage. A cross section of a binburnt kernel maintains its dense structure and appears smooth and glossy. A binburnt kernel is similar in weight to sound kernel.

There is a single tolerance for the total of binburnt, severely mildewed, mouldy, and rotted kernels.

Procedures

  • Determine the weight binburnt of kernals as a percentage of the net weight of the sample.
Blackpoint (BLK PT)

Blackpoint (BLK PT)

Kernels with blackpoint have a distinct dark brown or black discolouration of the whole germ and surrounding area.

Procedures

  • Disregard a slight discolouration restricted to the germ.
  • When the discolouration affects more than one-half of the kernel or extends into the crease, it is considered smudge.
Broken (BKN)

Broken (BKN)

Broken kernels are pieces of wheat that are less than three-quarters of a whole kernel. If the piece is more than three-quarters of a kernel, it is considered whole. See Shrunken and broken

Common bunt (stinking smut) (SMUT)

Common bunt (stinking smut) (SMUT)

Common bunt is a plant disease caused by fungi, characterized by

  • Soft black bunt balls
  • Kernels tagged with black bunt spores
  • A distinct smutty odour, or the smell of rotten fish

Procedures

See procedures for Cleaning for grade improvement.

  • If samples have a distinct odour, grade Wheat Sample CW/CE/CAN Account Odour.
  • If kernels are tagged with bunt spores but there is no smutty odour, the sample is Naturally stained and graded accordingly.
  • Non-removable bunt balls are considered as Matter other than cereal grains.
Contaminated grain

Contaminated grain

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any sample that is suspected of containing contaminated grain.

Contaminated is defined in the “Canada Grain Act” as; “Contaminated means, in respect of grain, containing any substance in sufficient quantity that the grain is unfit for consumption by persons or animals or is adulterated within the meaning of the regulations made pursuant to sections B.01.046(1), B.15.001 and B.15.002(1) of the Food and Drugs Act.”

Samples deemed to be contaminated by the Grain Research Laboratory in consultation with the Chief Grain Inspector for Canada are graded Wheat, Sample Condemned.

Contrasting classes (CON CL)

Contrasting classes (CON CL)

See Wheats of other classes or varieties (WOOC)

Darkened kernels (amber durum)

Darkened kernels (amber durum)

Darkened kernels (amber durum) - Darkened kernels are similar in appearance to penetrated smudge with the exception that discolouration is gray to charcoal in colour rather than red to dark brown.

For grading purposes, darkened kernels should be considered as, and in conjunction with severe midge damage.

Dark immature kernels (DKIM)

Dark immature kernels (DKIM)

Dark immature kernels are also called swath-heated kernels. They are similar to heated kernels, but they do not exhibit the reddish discolouration associated with heated kernels, and they do not have a heated odour.

  • Are considered as damage for grading purposes in CWRW
Degermed kernels (DGM)

Degermed kernels (DGM)

The germ has been removed through the mechanical handling process or by insect attack. Degermed kernels lack the greyish discolouration that is often present with sprouted kernels.

  • Are considered as damage for grading purposes in CWRW

See Indian Meal Moth

Earth pellets (EP)

Earth pellets (EP)

Hard earth pellets are pellets that do not crumble under light pressure. See Stones.

Soft earth pellets are pellets that crumble under light pressure.

See Soft earth pellets.

Ergot (ERG)

Ergot (ERG)

Ergot is a plant disease which produces elongated fungus bodies with a purplish black exterior, a purplish white to off-white interior, and a relatively smooth surface texture.

Excreta (EXCR)

Excreta (EXCR)

Excrement from any animal including mammals, birds and insects.

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain excreta.

Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)

Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)

Fertilizer pellets are a manufactured plant nutrient product used by producers in the production of grain. They are typically small, round or irregular shaped and usually white, grey, brown, pink or reddish in colour.

Note:

Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for procedures to be followed when handling samples containing fertilizer pellets.

Procedures

  • Handpick any fertilizer pellets and determine the concentration basis the net working sample.
  • Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when the concentration does not exceed 1.0% of the net sample weight.
  • Samples containing fertilizer pellets in excess of 1.0% of the net sample weight are graded Wheat, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.
Fireburnt kernels (FBNT)

Fireburnt kernels (FBNT)

Fireburnt kernels are charred or scorched by fire. A cross-section of a fireburnt kernel resembles charcoal with numerous air holes which crumble easily under pressure.

Foreign material (FM)

Foreign material (FM)

Foreign material is anything that is not wheat that remains in the sample after the  removal of dockage.

Frost/heat stress (FRHTS)

Frost/heat stress (FRHTS)

Frost/heat stress refers to wheat kernels with blistered brans as a result of exposure to freezing temperatures or prolonged hot weather conditions. The degree of blistering ranges from fine to coarse and is dependent upon the maturity of the grain, the temperature to which the grain is exposed and the duration of the exposure. Samples containing kernels affected by frost/heat stress are graded according to the degree of soundness definition as reflected in the standard or guide samples for each grade.

Fusarium damage (FUS DMG)

Fusarium damage (FUS DMG)

Fusarium-damaged wheat is typically characterized by thin or shrunken chalk-like kernels. Fusarium-damaged kernels have a white or pinkish mould or fibrous growth.

Procedures

  1. Using a Boerner-type divider, divide the representative portion.
  2. Separate all kernels showing any evidence of fusarium damage, including any kernels that have a chalk-like appearance.
  3. You may examine kernels using a 10-power magnifying lens to confirm evidence of a white or pinkish mould or fibrous growth. In determining fusarium damage, select only kernels with this white or pinkish mould or fibrous growth.
Grass green kernels (GRASS GR)

Grass green kernels (GRASS GR)

Grass-green kernels are a distinct vivid green throughout because of immaturity.

  • Are considered as damage for grading purposes in CWRW.
Grasshopper, armyworm damage (GAW)

Grasshopper, armyworm damage (GAW)

Kernels damaged by grasshopper or armyworm are chewed, usually on the sides.

  • Are considered as damage for grading purposes in CWRW.
Green (GR)

Green (GR)

Green wheat kernels may range from fully developed to shrunken and distorted with various degrees of darkening that are in contrast to the natural sound colour.

The maturation process has been affected or arrested by the environment or an agronomic practice resulting in a variation in colour, size and shape. The physical effect is dependent on the timing and extent of the exposure to the contributing factors.

Dark immature, Grass green and Immature are separate grading factors that should not be confused with Green damaged kernels.

Samples containing Green kernels are graded according to the degree of soundness definition as reflected in the standard or guide samples for each grade.

Hard vitreous kernels (HVK)

Hard vitreous kernels (HVK)

Vitreousness is the natural translucence of a kernel that is a visible sign of kernel hardness. Hard vitreous kernels (HVK) are a grade determinant for the amber durum wheat class in Canada and the red spring wheat class in western Canada.

Red Spring - Western Canada

Note:

Cutting of kernels is not permitted

Non-vitreous material includes

  • Contrasting classes of wheat
  • Foreign material
  • Kernels that are sprouted, binburnt, severely mildewed, rotted, mouldy, heated, fireburnt, penetrated smudge, chalky white fusarium damaged, grass green, severely frost damaged or midge damaged
  • Whole and pieces of kernels having a defined starch area of at least half the surface area of the kernel or piece of kernel that clearly contrasts with the translucent colour of a vitreous kernels

Amber Durum

Note:

Cutting of kernels is permitted

Non-vitreous material includes:

  • Wheats of other classes
  • Foreign material
  • Kernels that are sprouted, binburnt, severely mildewed, rotted, mouldy, heated, fireburnt, penetrated smudge, chalky white fusarium damaged, grass green, severely frost damaged or midge damaged including severe midge damaged
  • Kernels having an externally visible starch area of any size
  • Kernels having internal starch areas that require cutting of the kernels. Opaque and bleached kernels may require cutting to determine if there are starchy areas within the kernel.
  • When evaluating the face of the cross-section, the following will be excluded from non-vitreous:
    • The cut has resulted in a flaking of the endosperm
    • The face of the cross cut kernel has a minute starch area roughly the size of a pencil point typically at the trough of the cheeks
    • The face of the cross cut kernel appears cloudy overall but with no dense white starch area

Procedures

1. Using a Boerner-type divider, divide a representative portion of 250 g from the cleaned sample.

2. Sieve the representative portion mechanically, using the Carter dockage tester or manually using the No. 4.5 slotted sieve.

Feed control #6
Air control Off
Riddle None
Top sieve No. 4.5 slotted sieve
Centre sieve Blank tray
Bottom sieve None
Sieve cleaner Off
Manual method

Sift the approximately 250 g clean sub-sample over the No. 4.5 slotted hand sieve. Sifting shall consist of 25 complete motions of about 15 cm total distance.

3. From the material that remains on top of the sieve or lodged in the sieve, divide a portion of 15 g, or 25 g for export shipments.

Material that passes through the sieve is not used in the determination of HVK.

4. Separate vitreous and non-vitreous kernels from the 15-g portion.

5. For amber durum only: Cut and examine the endosperm of suspect kernels to determine if they are vitreous.

Heated kernels (HTD)

Heated kernels (HTD)

Heated kernels have the colour and may have the odour typical of grain that has deteriorated in storage or has been damaged by artificial drying. They range from orange-red to very dark brown, but are not black.

Heated seeds of other grains are included in the tolerance for Heated.

Immature (IM)

Immature (IM)

Immature wheat kernels are not fully ripened. The kernels may be fully developed with various shades of green that are in contrast to the natural sound colour.

The kernel development has been arrested during the maturation process often resulting in variation in colour, size and shape.

Dark immature and Grass green are separate grading factors that should not be confused with Green damaged kernels.

Samples containing Immature kernels are graded according to the degree of soundness definition as reflected in the standard or guide samples for each grade.

Indian meal moth (DGM)

Indian meal moth (DGM)

Consider kernels showing damage from Indian meal moth as degermed.

See Degermed.

Are considered as damage for grading purposes in CWRW

Matter other than cereal grains (MOTCG)

Matter other than cereal grains (MOTCG)

Matter other than cereal grains is

  • Inseparable seeds such as ragweed, Tartary buckwheat, rye grass, and wild oats
  • Non-cereal domestic grains such as flaxseed, corn, peas, buckwheat and lentils that remain in the cleaned sample

Note:

If the sample is commercially clean, assessing MOTCG is not necessary unless requested. If sample is not commercially clean, MOTCG should only be assessed after cleaning. See Normal Cleaning Procedures.

Midge damage (MDGE DMG)

Midge damage (MDGE DMG)

For grading purposes, midge damaged kernels must have at least two of the following characteristics;

  • A rupture of the bran on either the back or side of the kernel
  • A distinct white line or mark, located on the back or side of the kernel
  • The kernel is distinctly distorted
Mildew (MIL)

Mildew (MIL)

Mildew kernels are kernels affected by field fungi that develop under conditions of excessive moisture affecting unthreshed kernels of wheat. Samples affected by mildew have an overall greyish discolouration with grey to black mildew spores typically attached to the brush end of the kernel.

Samples containing kernels affected by mildew are graded according to the degree of soundness definition as reflected in the standard or guide samples for each grade.

See Severely mildewed for heavily affected samples.

Note:

Samples of Canadian Eastern Hard Red Winter (CEHRW) and Canadian Eastern Soft Red Winter (CESRW) will be graded no lower than No. 3 CE account mildew.

Mouldy kernels (MLDY KRNL)

Mouldy kernels (MLDY KRNL)

Mouldy kernels are discoloured, swollen and soft as a result of decomposition by fungi or bacteria. They have mould visible to the naked eye and may feel spongy under pressure.

There is a single tolerance for the total of binburnt, severely mildewed, mouldy, and rotted kernels.

Procedures

  • Determine the weight of mouldy kernels as a percentage of the net weight of the sample.
Natural stain (NSTN)

Natural stain (NSTN)

Naturally stained kernels are caused by contact with natural substances such as bunt spores, soil or weeds. Kernels that are lightly stained should not be considered.

Odour (ODOR)

Odour (ODOR)

There is no numeric tolerance for odour. Consider

  • The basic quality of the sample
  • The type and degree of the odour—such as fuel oil, skunk or urea
  • The presence of visible residue causing the odour
Heated, fireburnt and odour for wheat
If odour is the grade determinant and there is… Then the grade is…
A distinct objectionable odour not associated with the quality of the grain, but not heated or fireburnt Wheat, Sample CW/CE/CAN Account Odour
A distinct heated odour Wheat, Sample CW/CE/CAN Account Heated
A distinct fireburnt odour Wheat, Sample CW/CE/CAN Account Fireburnt
Other cereal grains (OCG)

Other cereal grains (OCG)

Other cereal grains in wheat are rye, barley, triticale, oats, oat groats, and wild oat groats that remain in the cleaned sample. Other cereal grains are treated as total foreign material.

For grading purposes, spelt and Kamut® are considered as Other cereal grains in samples of wheat.

Penetrated smudge (PENT SM)

Penetrated smudge (PENT SM)

With penetrated smudge, the discolouration penetrates and extends throughout the endosperm, usually as a result of a more severe infection.

Procedures

Note: Cutting of kernels is permitted

  • Determine the weight of penetrated smudge kernels as a percentage of the net weight of the sample.
Pink kernels (PNK)

Pink kernels (PNK)

Pink pigment in wheat kernels is an indication of immaturity. Pink kernels

  • Are shrunken
  • Display a pink discolouration
  • Are considered as damage for grading purposes in CWRW

Important:

Do not confuse pink kernels with fusarium-damaged kernels, pesticide treated seed or other contaminated grains.

Protein (PROT)

Protein (PROT)

The classes of CWRS, CWHWS, CWAD, CWES and CWRW wheat have minimum protein levels established for No. 1 grades. Protein content is reported on a 13.5% moisture basis.

See Primary grade determinants tables.

Rotted kernels (ROT KRNL)

Rotted kernels (ROT KRNL)

Rotted kernels are discoloured, swollen and soft as a result of decomposition by fungi or bacteria. They may feel spongy under pressure.

There is a single tolerance for the total of binburnt, severely mildewed, mouldy, and rotted kernels.

Procedures

  • Determine the weight of rotted kernels as a percentage of the net weight of the sample.
Ruptured kernels

Ruptured kernels

Kernels are considered to be ruptured when the split in the cheek extends at least half the length of the cheek or if both cheeks are split to any degree. Ruptured kernels do not require magnification to be identified. For tolerances refer to Ruptured kernel tolerance memo.

Note:

The grades of Wheat, No. 1 CWRS and Wheat No. 1 CWHWS have a numerical tolerances. For all other grades of wheat; ruptured kernels are considered as severely damaged and are assessed using the "Degree of Soundness" definition of the grading table.

Sawfly damage (SFLY DMG)

Kernels with sawfly damage are shrivelled or distorted.

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a fungus producing hard masses of fungal tissue, called sclerotia. The sclerotia vary in size and shape, have a coarse surface texture, vary in exterior color from dark black to gray to white and have a pure white interior.

Severe midge damage (SEVMDGE)

Severe midge damage (SEVMDGE)

Midge damaged kernels that have a blackened streak extending more than one quarter the length of the kernel are classed as severely midge damaged kernels. This discolouration is the result of a fungal infection. Midge damaged kernels that are blackened less than one quarter the length of the kernel or only grey discolouration of any amount, are not assessed as severely midge damaged kernels. Severe midge damage is determined for CWAD only.

Severely mildewed kernels (SEVMIL)

Severely mildewed kernels (SEVMIL)

In severely mildewed wheat, mildew spores have severely blackened the kernel inside and out. The kernels may feel spongy under pressure.

There is a single tolerance for the total of binburnt, severely mildewed, mouldy, and rotted kernels.

Procedures

  • Determine the weight of severely mildewed kernels as a percentage of the net weight of the sample.
Severely sprouted kernels (SEVSPTD)

Severely sprouted kernels (SEVSPTD)

Kernels are assessed as severely sprouted when

  • The sprouts extend beyond the normal contour of the germ
  • The kernels are severely degenerated as an apparent result of advanced sprouting
  • The sprout has been clearly broken and only a portion remains
  • The sprout is completely gone and there is evidence showing that there was extension of the sprout outside the normal contour of the germ
Note: for midge damaged amber durum kernels, use following table:
Midge damaged amber durum kernels with a Considered as
broken sprout within the contour of the germ Sprouted
broken sprout extending beyond the contour of the germ Severely sprouted
Shrunken and broken (SHR, BKN)

Shrunken and broken (SHR, BKN)

Percentages of shrunken and broken kernels are determined from the same representative portion.

Shrunken kernels (SHR)

Shrunken kernels are whole kernels of wheat that pass through a No. 4.5 slotted sieve.

Broken kernels (BKN)

Broken kernels are pieces of wheat that are less than three-quarters of a whole kernel. If the piece is more than three-quarters of a kernel, it is considered whole.

Determine the percentage of shrunken kernels

1. Using a Boerner-type divider, divide a representative portion of approximately 250 g from the sample.

2. Pass the portion through the Carter dockage tester set up as follows:

Feed control #5
Air control Off
Riddle None
Top sieve No. 4.5 slotted
Centre sieve Blank tray
Bottom sieve None
Sieve cleaner Off

3. Separate the shrunken and broken kernels which pass through the sieve and calculate a percentage for each.

Determine the percentage of broken kernels

4. Using a Boerner-type divider and the sieved portion from Step 2, divide a representative portion of approximately 50 g.

5. Handpick broken kernels from the 50-g portion and calculate the percentage.

6. Add this percentage to the percentage of handpicked kernels from Step 3 to determine Total Broken.

Report total shrunken and broken (TSHRBKN)

7. When the percentage of shrunken, broken or total shrunken and broken is the grade determinant and is over the grade tolerance by up to 0.9% the excess fraction up to 0.9% is truncated for grade determination, for example, 4.6% is considered 4.0%.  However, the percentages of shrunken, broken and total shrunken and broken recorded in documentation is the actual non-truncated percentages. The percentages of total shrunken and broken subject to truncation is the sum of the actual non-truncated percentages of shrunken kernels and of broken kernels.

Examples

1 CWRS tolerances: shrunken 4%; broken 5%; total shrunken and broken 7%

Example 1

A 1 CWRS with; shrunken 4.7%, broken 2.2%; total shrunken and broken 6.9%

Shrunken would be reported as 4.7% but would be considered to be 4% for grade determination, total shrunken and broken would be reported as 6.9%. The sample would grade 1 CWRS.

Example 2

A 1 CWRS with; shrunken 4.7%, broken 3.2%, total shrunken and broken 7.9%.

Shrunken would be reported as 4.7% but would be considered to be 4% for grade determination. Total shrunken and broken would be reported as 7.9% but would be considered to be 7% for grade determination. The sample would grade 1 CWRS.

Example 3

A 1 CWRS with; shrunken 4.7%, broken 3.4% and total shrunken and broken 8.1%.

Total shrunken and broken would be reported as 8.1% and could not be truncated in the determination of grade because it exceeds the tolerance by more than 0.9%. Shrunken would be reported as 4.7% but would be considered to be 4% for grade determination since truncation would improve the grade from a CWFD to 2 CWRS. The sample would grade 2 CWRS for 8.1% Total Shrunken and Broken.

Smudge (SM)camera icon

Smudge (SM)

Smudge is a discolouration on the kernel as a result of infection by some common field fungi. The discolouration may be brown, black or red.

Amber durum

The discolouration is assessed as smudge in amber durum if:

  1. More than one-half the kernel is discoloured, or
  2. Discolouration of the crease
    • Has spread onto the cheeks of the kernel regardless of any discolouration of the germ
    • Appears as a thin line extending more than half the length of the crease, in combination with any discolouration of the germ.
Note:

Kernels that have a thin line of discolouration of any length in the crease, but have no discolouration of the germ, are not assessed as smudge.

Classes of wheat other than amber durum

The discolouration is considered as smudge in wheat classes other than amber durum if more than one-half of the kernel is discoloured, or if the discolouration extends into the crease. Less extensive discolouration is considered blackpoint.

No discolouration on germ and thin line of discolouration in crease. Not considered as Smudge.
No discolouration on germ and thin line of discolouration in crease. Not considered as Smudge.
Discolouration of the crease appears as a thin line extending more than half the length of the crease, in combination with any discolouration of the germ. Considered as Smudge.
Discolouration of the crease appears as a thin line extending more than half the length of the crease, in combination with any discolouration of the germ. Considered as Smudge.
Discolouration of the crease has spread onto the cheeks of the kernel regardless of any discolouration of the germ. Considered as Smudge.
Discolouration of the crease has spread onto the cheeks of the kernel regardless of any discolouration of the germ. Considered as Smudge.
Soft earth pellets (SEP)

Soft earth pellets (SEP)

Soft earth pellets are

  • Earth pellets that crumble into fine dust under light pressure, using a finger only— if they do not crumble, they are considered Stones.
  • Any non-toxic material of similar consistency.

Procedures

  1. Handpick soft earth pellets from the clean sample.
  2. Soft earth pellets constituting 10% or less of the sample are assessed as dockage.
  3. Where soft earth pellets represent more than 10% of the net weight, the sample is graded Wheat, Sample Account Admixture.
Sprouted kernels (SPTD)camera icon

Sprouted kernels (SPTD)

Kernels are sprouted if one of the following conditions exists:

  • Kernels show clear evidence of growth in the germ area including kernels where the bran is noticeably split over the germ area along with clear evidence of growth.
  • The germ is missing along with discolouration and deterioration of the kernel from weathering.

Note:

Kernels with missing germs that are not discoloured and deteriorated from weathering see Degermed.

Examples of sprouted kernels

Amber durum kernels
Left to right: severely sprouted, sprouted, sprouted, sprouted, sprouted, not sprouted

Amber durum kernels

Left to right: severely sprouted, sprouted, sprouted, sprouted, sprouted, not sprouted

Note:

Each of the following images is made up of 2 photos of the same kernels taken from different angles.

Select an image to display a larger version.

Midge damaged amber durum kernels
Midge damaged amber durum kernels with a Considered as
broken sprout within the contour of the germ Sprouted
broken sprout extending beyond the contour of the germ Severely sprouted

Procedures

  1. Using a Boerner-type divider, divide a representative portion.
  2. Separate all kernels showing any evidence of sprouting.
  3. You may use a 10-power magnifying lens to confirm sprouting activity.
Important:

For CEWW, unless there is clear evidence of growth, do not count the kernel as sprouted

Stones (STNS)

Stones (STNS)

Stones are hard shale, coal, hard earth pellets, and any other non-toxic materials of similar consistency. Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when constituting 1.0% or less of the net sample weight. (See Fertilizer pellets for specific procedures to be followed when samples contain fertilizer pellets.)

Procedures

  1. Handpick stones from a representative portion of the cleaned sample.
  2. Determine stone concentration in the net sample.
Note:

Stones may be removed and included in dockage if the material removed is 5% or less of the gross weight of the sample. See Cleaning for grade improvement.

  • In western Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of “basic grade” tolerances, up to 2.5% are graded Wheat, Rejected “basic grade” Account Stones. The “basic grade” refers to a grade established in the Canada Grain Regulations (grades listed in the first column in grade determinant tables) that would have been assigned to the sample if it contained no stones.
  • In eastern Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of grade tolerances are degraded to lower grades. Samples containing stones in excess of the tolerance of the lowest grade established by regulation up to 2.5% are graded Wheat, Sample Canada Eastern Account Stones.
  • In western and eastern Canada grain containing more than 2.5% stones is graded Wheat, Sample Salvage.

Examples: Western Canada

Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Wheat, Canada Western Red Spring
Grade name Stones %
No. 1 CWRS 0.03
No. 2 CWRS 0.03
No. 3 CWRS 0.06
CW Feed 0.10

Basic grade:....................... Wheat, No. 3 CWRS

Reason for basic grade:...... Mildew

Grade in Western Canada if stones found.
If the above sample contained Grade in Western Canada
0.08% stones Wheat, Rejected No. 3 CWRS Account Stones
1.0% stones Wheat, Rejected No. 3 CWRS Account Stones
3.0% stones Wheat, Sample Salvage

Examples: Eastern Canada

Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Wheat, Canada Eastern Red Spring
Grade name Stones %
No. 1 CERS 0.03
No. 2 CERS 0.03
No. 3 CERS 0.06
CE Feed 0.10

Basic grade:....................... Wheat, No. 3 CERS

Reason for basic grade:...... Mildew

Grade in Eastern Canada if stones found.
If the above sample contained Grade in Eastern Canada
0.08% stones Wheat, CE Feed
1.0% stones Wheat, Sample CE Account Stones
3.0% stones Wheat, Sample Salvage
Streak mould

Streak mould

Kernels with unusual dark grey streaks on their sides toward the brush may indicate streak mould. This very slow-growing mould is harmless in wheat, but it affects kernel appearance. It occurs most commonly in red winter wheat. It is not related to the more serious storage moulds.

Procedures

For grading, include streak mould with blackpoint.

Superficial discolouration (SUPDISCLR)

Superficial discolouration (SUPDISCLR)

Superficial discolouration is a reddish discolouration not penetrating the endosperm. This factor is evaluated subjectively in relation to the degree of soundness without reference to specific tolerances.

Total Damage (TDMG)

Total Damage (TDMG)

Includes kernels that are dark immature, degermed, fireburnt, fusarium damaged, grass green, grasshopper/armyworm damaged, heated, pink, sawfly/midge damaged, smudge damaged, sprouted or damaged in any other way.

Treated seed and other chemical substances

Treated seed and other chemical substances

Treated seed

Treated seed is grain that has been coated with an agricultural chemical for agronomic purposes. These seed dressings contain a dye to render the treated seed visually conspicuous. The colour of the dye varies depending upon the type of treatment and the type of grain. The current Canadian colour standards for pesticide seed treatments are: cereals-pink or red, canola-baby blue or green. Seed treated with an inoculant may have a green stain. The coatings or stains may appear greasy or powdery and surface area distribution ranges from tiny flecks to complete coverage.

Other chemical substances

Other chemical substances refers to any chemical residues either adhering to the kernel or remaining in the sample and to samples having a chemical odour of any kind.

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain contaminated grain.

If a sample is suspected of being coated with a pesticide, desiccant, inoculant or if the sample contains evidence of any foreign chemical substance other than fertilizer pellets, the sample shall be graded Wheat, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.

Note:

Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for specific procedures to be followed when handling samples suspected of containing treated seed or other chemical substances.

Wheats of other classes or varieties (WOOC)

Wheats of other classes or varieties (WOOC)

  • Other classes of wheat are all classes of wheat, including non-registered varieties, other than the predominant class in the sample.
  • Contrasting classes are classes of different colour wheat; for example, CWAD is a contrasting class in CWRS.
  • Other varieties of wheat are any registered varieties.

Note:

The wheat class CWHWS is considered a WOOC for grading purposes in samples of CWRS.

Representative portion for analysis Wheats of other classes or varieties
Factor Minimum, grams Optimum, grams
For wheats other than durum, soft white spring—    
Other classes that blend 25 50
Contrasting classes 50 100
For durum, soft white spring—    
Wheats of other classes 50 100
Other varieties of wheat 15 25

Working tolerance for wheats of other classes that blend

When assessing wheats of other classes that blend, up to 0.9% in excess of the grade specification is considered a working tolerance and disregarded.

For example, for No. 2 CWRS the tolerance is 4.5%. Samples containing up to 5.4% will still be considered within tolerance.

Note:

This working tolerance only applies to registered varieties that qualify for the milling grades of wheat.

Working tolerances for the milling grades of wheat.
Predominant class Wheats of other classes
CWRS CWHWS CWAD CWRW CWSWS CWES CWSP CPSW
CWRS - WOOC CC WOOCFootnote 2 CC WOOCFootnote 2 Footnote 3 CC
CWHWS CC - CC CC WOOC CC Footnote 3 WOOC
CWAD WOOC WOOC - WOOC WOOC WOOC Footnote 3 WOOC
CWRW WOOCFootnote 2 CC CC - CC WOOCFootnote 2 Footnote 3 CC
CWSWS WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC - WOOC WOOC WOOC
CWES WOOCFootnote 2 CC CC WOOCFootnote 2 CC - Footnote 3 CC
CWSP WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC - WOOC
CPSW CC WOOC CC CC WOOC CC Footnote 3 -
CPSR WOOCFootnote 2 CC CC WOOCFootnote 2 CC WOOCFootnote 2 Footnote 3 CC
CNHR WOOCFootnote 2 WOOC CC WOOCFootnote 2 CC WOOCFootnote 2 Footnote 3 CC
CERFootnote 1 - CC CC - CC - Footnote 4 CC
CERS - WOOC CC - CC - Footnote 4 CC
CEHRW - CC CC - CC - Footnote 4 CC
CESRW - CC CC - CC - Footnote 4 CC
CEAD WOOC WOOC - WOOC WOOC WOOC Footnote 3 WOOC
CEWW CC WOOC CC CC WOOC CC Footnote 3 WOOC
CESWS WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC - WOOC Footnote 3 WOOC
CEHWS CC - CC CC WOOC CC Footnote 4 WOOC
CEHWW CC WOOC CC CC WOOC CC Footnote 4 WOOC
Predominant class Wheats of other classes
CPSR CNHR CERFootnote 1 CEAD CEWW CESWS CEHWS CEHWW
CWRS WOOCFootnote 2 WOOCFootnote 2 WOOCFootnote 2 CC CC CC CC CC
CWHWS CC CC CC CC WOOC WOOC - WOOC
CWAD WOOC WOOC WOOC - WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC
CWRW WOOCFootnote 2 WOOCFootnote 2 WOOCFootnote 2 CC CC CC CC CC
CWSWS WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC - WOOC WOOC
CWES WOOCFootnote 2 WOOCFootnote 2 WOOCFootnote 2 CC CC CC CC CC
CWSP WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC
CPSW CC CC CC CC WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC
CPSR - WOOCFootnote 2 WOOCFootnote 2 CC CC CC CC CC
CNHR WOOCFootnote 2 - WOOCFootnote 2 CC CC CC CC CC
CERFootnote 1 - - - CC CC CC CC CC
CERS - - - CC CC CC WOOC CC
CEHRW - - - CC CC CC CC CC
CESRW - - - CC CC CC CC CC
CEAD WOOC WOOC WOOC - WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC
CEWW CC CC CC CC - WOOC WOOC WOOC
CESWS WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC WOOC - WOOC WOOC
CEHWS CC CC CC CC WOOC WOOC - WOOC
CEHWW CC CC CC CC WOOC WOOC WOOC -

WOOC - Wheats of other classes

CC - Contrasting classes

Footnotes

Footnote 1

CER is used for CERS, CEHRW and CESRW.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

See Working tolerance for wheats of other classes that blend

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

Consider as WOOC if the same colour, consider as CC if a different colour

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

No WOOC tolerance, consider as CC if a different colour

Return to footnote 4 referrer