Triticale – Chapter 8 | Official Grain Grading Guide

Grading factors

Binburnt kernels (BBT)

Blackpoint (BLK PT)

Blackpoint kernels have a distinct dark brown or black discolouration of the whole germ and surrounding area. Disregard a slight discolouration restricted to the germ. See Smudge and Smudge, including blackpoint.

Broken (BKN)

Broken (BKN)

Broken kernels are pieces of triticale that are less than three-quarters of a whole kernel.

Procedures

  • In samples graded Triticale, Sample Broken Grain, return to the cleaned sample any broken triticale removed in cleaning but remaining on top of the No. 4.5 round-hole hand sieve.
  • For reporting and grading, round down the percentage by weight of broken triticale to a whole number.
Cereal grains other than wheat

Cereal grains other than wheat

Cereal grains other than wheat in triticale includes rye, barley, oats, oat groats and wild oat groats.

For grading purposes, spelt and Kamut® are considered as Other cereal grains in samples of triticale.

Contaminated grain

Contaminated grain

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any sample that is suspected of containing contaminated grain.

Contaminated is defined in the “Canada Grain Act” as; “Contaminated means, in respect of grain, containing any substance in sufficient quantity that the grain is unfit for consumption by persons or animals or is adulterated within the meaning of the regulations made pursuant to sections B.01.046(1), B.15.001 and B.15.002(1) of the Food and Drugs Act.”

Samples deemed to be contaminated by the Grain Research Laboratory in consultation with the Chief Grain Inspector for Canada are graded Triticale, Sample Condemned.

Degermed (DGM)

Degermed (DGM)

Degermed kernels

  • Are considered Sprouted if the sample contains other sprouted kernels
  • Are considered sound if the sample contains no other sprouted kernels
Earth pellets (EP)

Earth pellets (EP)

  • Hard earth pellets are pellets that do not crumble under light pressure.
    See Stones.
  • Soft earth pellets are pellets that crumble under light pressure. See Soft earth pellets.
Ergot (ERG)

Ergot (ERG)

  • Ergot is a plant disease producing elongated ungus bodies having a purplish-black exterior, a purplish-white to off white interior, and a relatively smooth surface texture.
Excreta (EXCR)

Excreta (EXCR)

Excrement from any animal including mammals, birds and insects.

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain excreta.

Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)

Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)

Fertilizer pellets are a manufactured plant nutrient product used by producers in the production of grain. They are typically small, round or irregular shaped and usually white, grey, brown, pink or reddish in colour.

Note:

Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for procedures to be followed when handling samples containing fertilizer pellets.

Procedures

  • Handpick any fertilizer pellets and determine the concentration basis the net working sample.
  • Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when the concentration does not exceed 1.0% of the net sample weight.
  • Samples containing fertilizer pellets in excess of 1.0% of the net sample weight are graded Triticale, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.
Fireburnt (FBNT)

Fireburnt (FBNT)

Fireburnt kernels are kernels charred or scorched by fire. A cross-section of a fireburnt kernel resembles charcoal with numerous air holes. The air holes result in a low weight kernel which crumbles easily under pressure.

Foreign material (FM)

Foreign material (FM)

Foreign material in triticale includes all material other than whole or broken triticale that remains in the sample after the removal of dockage. Many of the materials have their own separate tolerances.

Fusarium damage (FUS DMG)

Fusarium damage (FUS DMG)

Fusarium-damaged kernels in triticale are typically chalklike in appearance and frequently contain a fibrous growth appearing in the crease of the kernel. Due to the kernel shape, the fibrous growth is often rubbed off some of the kernels.

In assessing fusarium damage in triticale, the following guidelines should be applied:

  • Chalklike kernels in a combination with a fibrous mould are fusarium damaged.
  • Chalklike kernels without a fibrous mould are fusarium damage if the mould is present in other chalklike kernels in the sample.
  • Chalklike kernels without the fibrous mould in samples where there are no other chalklike kernels with mould are not considered fusarium damaged.

Procedures, for severely infested samples

  1. Using a Boerner-type divider, divide the representative portion.
  2. Separate all kernels showing any evidence of fusarium damage, including any kernels that have a chalk-like appearance.
  3. You may examine kernels using a 10-power magnifying lens to confirm evidence of a white or pinkish mould or fibrous growth. In determining fusarium damage, use only kernels with this white or pinkish mould or growth.
Heated (HTD)

Heated (HTD)

Heated kernels have the colour or odour typical of grain that has deteriorated in storage or has been damaged by artificial drying. Heated triticale is not easily detected because of the natural colour variations that occur in sound triticale. Heated kernels of triticale are red or orange.

Heated seeds of other grains are included in the tolerance for Heated.

Matter other than cereal grains (MOTCG)

Matter other than cereal grains (MOTCG)

Matter other than cereal grains is

  • Inseparable seeds such a ragweed, Tartary buckwheat, rye grass, wild oats
  • Non-cereal domestic grains such as flaxseed, corn, peas, buckwheat and lentils that remain in the cleaned sample.
Odour (ODOR)

Odour (ODOR)

There is no numeric tolerance for odour. Consider

  • The basic quality of the sample
  • The type and degree of the odour
  • The presence of visible residue causing the odour
Heated, fireburnt and odour for triticale
If odour is the grade determinant and there is . . . Then the grade is . . .
A distinct objectionable odour not associated with the quality of the grain, but not heated or fireburnt Triticale, Sample Canada Account Odour
A distinct heated odour Triticale, Sample Canada Account Heated
A distinct fireburnt odour Triticale, Sample Canada Account Fireburnt
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a fungus producing hard masses of fungal tissue, called sclerotia. The sclerotia vary in size and shape, have a coarse surface texture, vary in exterior color from dark black to gray to white and have a pure white interior.

Smudge (SM)

Smudge (SM)

Smudge is a discolouration on the kernel The discolouration may be brown, black or red. The discolouration is considered smudge if more than one-half the kernel is discoloured or if the discolouration extends into the crease.

Soft earth pellets (SEP)

Soft earth pellets (SEP)

Soft earth pellets are

  • Earth pellets that crumble into fine dust under light pressure, using a finger only—if they do not crumble, they are considered Stones.
  • Any non-toxic material of similar consistency.

Procedures

  1. Handpick soft earth pellets from a representative portion of the cleaned sample.
  2. Soft earth pellets constituting 10.0% or less of the sample are assessed as dockage.
  3. Where soft earth pellets represent more than 10% of the net weight, the sample is graded Triticale, Sample CAN Account Admixture.
Sprouted (SPTD)

Sprouted (SPTD)

Sprouted kernels show definite signs of germination.

Important:

Kernels with long rootlets which clean out over the No. 25 riddle are either

  • Included in the dockage, as described in Composition of dockage
  • Returned to the sample and become a grading factor, in samples graded Triticale, Sample Canada Account Sprouted
Stones (STNS)

Stones (STNS)

Stones are hard shale, coal, hard earth pellets, and any other non toxic materials of similar consistency. Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when constituting 1.0% or less of the net sample weight. (See Fertilizer pellets for specific procedures to be followed when samples contain fertilizer pellets.)

Procedures

  1. Handpick stones from a representative portion of the cleaned sample.
  2. Determine stone concentration in the net sample.
Note:

Stones may be removed and included in dockage if the the material removed is 5.0% or less of the gross weight of the sample. See Cleaning for grade improvement.

  • In western Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of “basic grade” tolerances, up to 2.5% are graded Triticale, Rejected “basic grade” Account Stones. The “basic grade” refers to a grade established in the Canada Grain Regulations (grades listed in the first column in grade determinant tables) that would have been assigned to the sample if it contained no stones.
  • In eastern Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of grade tolerances are degraded to lower grades. Samples containing stones in excess of the tolerance of the lowest grade established by regulation up to 2.5% are graded Triticale, Sample CAN Account Stones.
  • In western and eastern Canada grain containing more than 2.5% stones is graded Triticale, Sample Salvage.

Examples: Western Canada

Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Triticale, Canada
Grade name Stones %
No. 1 Canada 0.033
No. 2 Canada 0.033
No. 3 Canada 0.066

Basic grade:....................... Triticale, No. 2 Canada

Reason for basic grade:...... Mildew

Grade in western Canada if stones found
If the above sample contained Grade in western Canada
0.05% stones Triticale, Rejected No. 2 Canada Account Stones
1.0% stones Triticale, Rejected No. 2 Canada Account Stones
3.0% stones Triticale, Sample Salvage

Examples: Eastern Canada

Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Triticale, Canada
Grade name Stones %
No. 1 Canada 0.033
No. 2 Canada 0.033
No. 3 Canada 0.066

Basic grade:....................... Triticale, No. 2 Canada

Reason for basic grade:...... Mildew

Grade in eastern Canada if stones found
If the above sample contained Grade in eastern Canada
0.05% stones Triticale, No. 3 Canada
1.0% stones Triticale, Sample Canada Account Stones
3.0% stones Triticale, Sample Salvage
Treated seed and other chemical substances

Treated seed and other chemical substances

Treated seed

Treated seed is grain that has been coated with an agricultural chemical for agronomic purposes. These seed dressings contain a dye to render the treated seed visually conspicuous. The colour of the dye varies depending upon the type of treatment and the type of grain. The current Canadian colour standards for pesticide seed treatments are: cereals–pink or red, canola–baby blue or green. Seed treated with an inoculant may have a green stain. The coatings or stains may appear greasy or powdery and surface area distribution ranges from tiny flecks to complete coverage.

Other chemical substances

Other chemical substances refers to any chemical residues either adhering to the kernel or remaining in the sample and to samples having a chemical odour of any kind.

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain contaminated grain.

If a sample is suspected of being coated with a pesticide, desiccant, inoculant or if the sample contains evidence of any foreign chemical substance other than fertilizer pellets, the sample shall be graded Triticale, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.

Note:

Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for specific procedures to be followed when handling samples suspected of containing treated seed or other chemical substances

Varieties

Varieties

Triticale is graded without reference to variety.