Mixed grain - Chapter 9 | Official Grain Grading Guide

Grading factors

Broken (BKN)

Broken (BKN)

Broken kernels are pieces of grain that are less than three-quarters of a whole kernel.

Contaminated grain

Contaminated grain

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any sample that is suspected of containing contaminated grain.

Contaminated is defined in the “Canada Grain Act” as; “Contaminated means, in respect of grain, containing any substance in sufficient quantity that the grain is unfit for consumption by persons or animals or is adulterated within the meaning of the regulations made pursuant to sections B.01.046(1), B.15.001 and B.15.002(1) of the Food and Drugs Act.”

Samples deemed to be contaminated by the Grain Research Laboratory in consultation with the Chief Grain Inspector for Canada are graded Mixed Grain, Sample Condemned.

Earth pellets (EP)

Earth pellets (EP)

Hard earth pellets are pellets that do not crumble under light pressure. See Stones.

Soft earth pellets are pellets that crumble under light pressure. See Soft earth pellets.

Ergot (ERG)

Ergot (ERG)

Ergot is a plant disease producing elongated fungus bodies having a purplish-black exterior, a purplish-white to off white interior, and a relatively smooth surface texture.

Excreta (EXCR)

Excreta (EXCR)

Excrement from any animal including mammals, birds and insects.

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain excreta.

Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)

Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)

Fertilizer pellets are a manufactured plant nutrient product used by producers in the production of grain. They are typically small, round or irregular shaped and usually white, grey, brown, pink or reddish in colour.

Note:

Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for procedures to be followed when handling samples containing fertilizer pellets.

Procedures

  • Handpick any fertilizer pellets and determine the concentration basis the net working sample.
  • Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when the concentration does not exceed 1.0% of the net sample weight.
  • Samples containing fertilizer pellets in excess of 1.0% of the net sample weight are graded Mixed Grain, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.
Fireburnt (FBNT)

Fireburnt (FBNT)

Fireburnt kernels are kernels charred or scorched by fire. A cross-section of a fireburnt kernel resembles charcoal with numerous air holes. The air holes result in a low weight kernel which crumbles easily under pressure.

Heated (HTD)

Heated (HTD)

Heated kernels are kernels having the colour and odour typical of grain that has heated in storage or has been damaged by artificial drying, but not charred kernels. Heated kernels include all heated grains in the sample.

Large seeds (LSDS)

Large seeds (LSDS)

Large seeds are seeds that do not pass through the No. 4.5 round-hole sieve and grains other than cereal grains, such as peas, beans, corn, flaxseed and domestic buckwheat. Large seeds remaining in the sample are included in Total foreign material.

Odour (HTD)

Odour (HTD)

There is no numeric tolerance for odour. Consider

  • The basic quality of the sample
  • The type and degree of the odour
  • The presence of visible residue causing the odour
Heated, fireburnt and odour for mixed grain
If odour is the grade determinant and there is . . . Then the grade is
A distinct objectionable odour not associated with the quality of the grain, but not heated or fireburnt Mixed grain, Sample CW/CE, Account Odour
A distinct heated odour Mixed grain, Sample CW/CE, Account Heated
A distinct fireburnt odour Mixed grain, Sample CW/CE, Account Fireburnt
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a fungus producing hard masses of fungal tissue, called sclerotia. The sclerotia vary in size and shape, have a coarse surface texture, vary in exterior color from dark black to gray to white and have a pure white interior.

Soft earth pellets (SEP)

Soft earth pellets (SEP)

Soft earth pellets are

  • Earth pellets that crumble into fine dust under light pressure using a finger only—if they do not crumble, they are considered stones
  • Any non-toxic material of similar consistency

Procedures

  1. Handpick soft earth pellets from a representative portion of the cleaned sample.
  2. Soft earth pellets constituting 10.0% or less of the sample are assessed as dockage.
  3. Where soft earth pellets represent more than 10% of the net weight, the sample is graded Mixed Grain, Sample CW/CE Account Admixture.
Stones (STNS)

Stones (STNS)

Stones are hard shale, coal, hard earth pellets, and any other non toxic materials of similar consistency. Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when constituting 1.0% or less of the net sample weight. (See Fertilizer pellets for specific procedures to be followed when samples contain fertilizer pellets.)

Procedures

  1. Handpick stones from a representative portion of the cleaned sample.
  2. Determine stone concentration in the net sample.
Note:

Stones may be removed and included in dockage if the material removed is 5.0% or less of the gross weight of the sample. See Cleaning for grade improvement.

  • In western Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of “basic grade” tolerances, up to 2.5% are graded Mixed Grain, Rejected “basic grade” Account Stones. The “basic grade” refers to a grade established in the Canada Grain Regulations (grades listed in the first column in grade determinant tables) that would have been assigned to the sample if it contained no stones.
  • In eastern Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of grade tolerances are degraded to lower grades. Samples containing stones in excess of the tolerance of the lowest grade established by regulation up to 2.5% are graded Mixed Grain, Sample CE Account Stones.
  • In western and eastern Canada grain containing more than 2.5% stones is graded Mixed Grain, Sample Salvage.

Examples: Western Canada

Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Mixed Grain, Canada Western (CW)
Grade name Stones
Mixed Grain CW Wheat 0.1
Mixed Grain CW Rye 0.1
Mixed Grain CW Barley 0.1
Mixed Grain CW Oats 0.1
Mixed Grain CW Triticale 0.1
Mixed Grain CW 0.1

Basic grade: Mixed Grain, CW Wheat.

Grade in western Canada if stones found
If the above sample contained Grade in western Canada
2.0% stones Mixed Grain, Rejected CW Wheat Account Stones
1.0% stones Mixed Grain, Rejected CW Wheat Account Stones
3.0% stones Mixed Grain, Sample Salvage

Examples: Eastern Canada

Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Mixed Grain, Canada Eastern (CE)
Grade name Stones
Mixed Grain CE Wheat 0.1
Mixed Grain CE Rye 0.1
Mixed Grain CE Barley 0.1
Mixed Grain CE Oats 0.1
Mixed Grain CE Triticale 0.1
Mixed Grain CE 0.1

Basic grade: Mixed Grain, CE Wheat.

Grade in eastern Canada if stones found
If the above sample contained Grade in eastern Canada
0.2% stones Mixed Grain, Sample CE Account Stones
1.0% stones Mixed Grain, Sample CE Account Stones
3.0% stones Mixed Grain, Sample Salvage
Treated seed and other chemical substances

Treated seed and other chemical substances

Treated seed

Treated seed is grain that has been coated with an agricultural chemical for agronomic purposes. These seed dressings contain a dye to render the treated seed visually conspicuous. The colour of the dye varies depending upon the type of treatment and the type of grain. The current Canadian colour standards for pesticide seed treatments are: cereals–pink or red, canola–baby blue or green. Seed treated with an inoculant may have a green stain. The coatings or stains may appear greasy or powdery and surface area distribution ranges from tiny flecks to complete coverage.

Other chemical substances

Other chemical substances refers to any chemical residues either adhering to the kernel or remaining in the sample and to samples having a chemical odour of any kind.

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain contaminated grain.

If a sample is suspected of being coated with a pesticide, desiccant, inoculant or if the sample contains evidence of any foreign chemical substance other than fertilizer pellets, the sample shall be graded Mixed grain, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.

Note: Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for specific procedures to be followed when handling samples suspected of containing treated seed or other chemical substances.