Domestic mustard seed - Chapter 12 | Official Grain Grading Guide

Grading factors

Important:

Images may vary in appearance due to factors such as monitor settings, viewing distance/angle and surrounding light.

Blotched seeds

Blotched seeds

Blotched seeds are oriental mustard seeds with black or brown discolourations on the seed coat.

  • Seeds only partly discoloured but otherwise sound are considered sound, but the discolouration is taken into account in the evaluation of colour. See Colour.
  • Seeds completely discoloured by blotch are considered damaged. See Damage.
Canola (CNL)

Canola (CNL)

Brown and oriental mustard seed

  • canola is classed as Inconspicuous admixture.

Yellow mustard seed

  • canola is classed as Distinctly detrimental.

Important:

Grain inspectors are authorized to withhold grades on samples with unidentifiable admixtures until results of analyses are confirmed by seed analysts.

Classes

Classes

Domestic mustard seed is classed as yellow, brown or oriental, or mixed. The class forms part of the grade name; for example, Domestic Mustard Seed, Sample Canada (Class), Account Heated. For a description of classes, see Identifying classes of domestic mustard seed.

Cockle (COC)

Cockle (COC)

Cockle, or cow cockle, is a hard roundish seed with a dull surface covered with numerous small bumps giving the seed a rough spiky appearance. Colour can be deep black, bluish-black or orangish-brown.

Brown and oriental mustard seed

  • cockle is part of Inconspicuous admixture.

Yellow mustard seed

  • cockle is considered Distinctly detrimental and included in Total conspicuous inseparable seeds.

Procedures

Use a microscope to examine the sample.

Colour (CLR)

Colour (CLR)

In analysing colour, consider

  • The general degree of maturity
  • The amount and degree of discolouration, such as from weathering
  • The proportion of damaged seeds, which are distinctly green or otherwise colour-damaged. See Damage and Distinctly green.
  • The amount of rime—light rime is considered in the overall appearance of the sample. See Damage.
Conspicuous admixture (CADMX)

Conspicuous admixture (CADMX)

Conspicuous admixture is also called Conspicuous inseparable seeds in the grade determinants tables.

Oriental and brown mustard seed

  • Small seeds or broken seeds of other grains
  • Weed seeds such as cow cockle, lamb’s-quarters, ball mustard, pigweed, cleavers, smartweed and lady’s-thumb.
  • Any conspicuous foreign material except stones and soft earth pellets

Yellow mustard seed

  • Seeds and foreign material designated as distinctly detrimental. See Distinctly detrimental
  • Small seeds and broken kernels of other grains
  • Weed seeds such as pigweed, lady’s-thumb, lamb’s-quarters and smartweed
  • Any conspicuous foreign material except stones and soft earth pellets

Important:

Grain inspectors are authorized to withhold grades on samples with unidentifiable admixtures until results of analyses are confirmed by seed analysts.

Contaminated grain

Contaminated grain

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any sample that is suspected of containing contaminated grain.

Contaminated is defined in the “Canada Grain Act” as; “Contaminated means, in respect of grain, containing any substance in sufficient quantity that the grain is unfit for consumption by persons or animals or is adulterated within the meaning of the regulations made pursuant to sections B.01.046(1), B.15.001 and B.15.002(1) of the Food and Drugs Act.”

Samples deemed to be contaminated by the Grain Research Laboratory in consultation with the Chief Grain Inspector for Canada are graded Domestic Mustard Seed, Sample Canada (Class) Condemned.

Damage (DMG)

Damage (DMG)

Damaged seeds include those that are

  • Distinctly shrunken or shrivelled
  • Badly discoloured from mould
  • Completely and densely covered with rime
  • Insect damaged, excessively weathered, sprouted, distinctly green, heated or otherwise damaged
  • Oriental mustard – completely discoloured by blotch

Procedures

  1. Handpick the representative portion to determine the content of visually damaged seeds
  2. Determine the percentage by weight.
  3. Crush the appropriate number of strips from the portion remaining. A crush is made with only one pass of the roller under firm pressure.
  4. Convert the count of damaged seeds on the strip to percentage by weight. Add the percentage of visually damaged seeds and crushed seeds for Total damage.
Distinctly detrimental (DDET)

Distinctly detrimental (DDET)

Brown and oriental mustard seed

  • Cow cockle
  • Sclerotinia

Yellow mustard seed

  • Cow cockle
  • Sclerotinia
  • Wild mustard, canola/rapeseed
  • Other distinctly detrimental seeds (see Other distinctly detrimental seeds)
    • Ball mustard
    • Cleavers
    • Cockle
    • Dog mustard
    • Hare’s ear mustard
    • Stinkweed or pennycress
    • Tansy mustard
    • Tumbling mustard
    • Wild buckwheat
    • Wormseed mustard

There are separate distinctly detrimental tolerances for cow cockle, sclerotinia and wild mustard in combination with canola or rapeseed and other distinctly detrimental seeds. All listed are included in the total of distinctly detrimental and total of conspicuous inseparable seeds.

Distinctly green (DGR)

Distinctly green (DGR)

Distinctly green tolerances are applied to crushed seeds which are a distinct green throughout. Pale green or immature seeds are taken into account in the evaluation of colour. See Colour.

Procedures

See Damage.

Earth pellets (EP)

Earth pellets (EP)

  • Hard earth pellets are pellets that do not crumble under light pressure. See Stones.
  • Soft earth pellets are pellets that crumble under light pressure. See Soft earth pellets.
Ergot (ERG)

Ergot (ERG)

Ergot is a plant disease producing elongated fungus bodies with a purplish-black exterior, a purplish-white to off white interior, and a relatively smooth surface texture.

Excreta (EXCR)

Excreta (EXCR)

Excrement from any animal including mammals, birds and insects.

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain excreta.

Procedures

  • If the amount of excreta is not excessive, determine the kernel count.
  • If the kernel count is excessive, determine the weight of excreta as a percentage of the net weight of the sample.
Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)

Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)

Fertilizer pellets are a manufactured plant nutrient product used by producers in the production of grain. They are typically small, round or irregular shaped and usually white, grey, brown, pink or reddish in colour.

Note:

Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for procedures to be followed when handling samples containing fertilizer pellets.

Procedures

  • Handpick any fertilizer pellets and determine the concentration basis the net working sample.
  • Fertilizer pellets are considered as a separate grading factor in all grades of domestic mustard seed.
    • Grades of domestic mustard seed may contain one fertilizer pellet in 1000 g, including samples of commercially clean mustard seed.
    • Samples containing one fertilizer pellet per 500 g up to 1.0% are graded Domestic Mustard Seed, Sample Canada (Class) Account Fertilizer Pellets.
    • Samples containing fertilizer pellets in excess of 1.0% of the net sample weight are graded Domestic Mustard Seed, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.

Important:

For samples between 500 and 1000 g - if the sample contains one fertilizer pellet, the sample grades Domestic Mustard Seed, Sample Canada (Class) Account Fertilizer Pellets. If the sample contains no fertilizer pellets, it is considered to be within the grade tolerance.

Fireburnt kernels (FBNT)

Fireburnt kernels (FBNT)

Samples that show any evidence of being charred or scorched by fire are considered fireburnt. Evidence includes odour, pieces of charred wood, and so on. Fireburnt seeds pop when crushed.

Procedures

Samples considered fireburnt are graded Domestic Mustard Seed, Sample Canada (Class) Account Fireburnt.

Frost

Frost

See Damage.

Green

Green

See Distinctly green.

Heated kernels (HTD)

Heated kernels (HTD)

Heated refers only to seeds that are distinctly heated or badly binburnt. Heated seeds have a heated odour.

Crushed seeds may be

  • Black—badly binburnt
  • Dark chocloate brown—distinctly heated
  • Light tan—slightly damaged from oxidation. If they have an odour or are present with brown or black crushed seeds, they are considered heated. Otherwise, they are included in Total damage, not heated.

Procedures

  1. Examine 500 seeds for evidence of heating.
  2. If no heated seeds detected, assess crushes for other damage. See Damage.
  3. If at least 1 heated seed is detected, crush and assess an additional 500 seeds for heated seeds.
  4. Heated seeds of other grains are included in the tolerance for Heated.
Inconspicuous admixture (INC ADMX)

Inconspicuous admixture (INC ADMX)

In brown and oriental mustard seed, inconspicuous admixture includes

  • Canola
  • Common wild mustard seed
  • Any other seeds that blend and are not readily identified

Important:

Grain inspectors are authorized to withhold grades on samples with unidentifiable admixtures until results of analyses are confirmed by seed analysts.

Insect Damage (I DMG)camera icon

Insect Damage (I DMG)

Insect damaged seeds are characterized by a perforation of the seed coat.

See Damage.

Brown mustard with insect damage
Brown mustard with insect damage
Brown mustard with insect damage
Brown mustard with insect damage
Oriental mustard with cabbage weevil damage
Oriental mustard with cabbage weevil damage
Mixed classes (MXD CL)

Mixed classes (MXD CL)

Samples are designated mixed classes when they contain sufficient quantities of other classes of mustard seed. See Other classes.

Odour (ODOR)

Odour (ODOR)

There is no numeric tolerance for odour. Consider

  • The basic quality of the sample
  • The type and degree of the odour
  • The presence of visible residue causing the odour
Heated, fireburnt and odour for domestic mustard seed
If odour is the grade determinant and there is . . . Then the grade is . . .
A distinct objectionable odour not associated with the quality of the grain, but not heated or fireburnt Domestic Mustard Seed, Sample Canada (Class), Account Odour
A distinct heated odour Domestic Mustard Seed, Sample Canada (Class), Account Heated
A distinct fireburnt odour Domestic Mustard Seed, Sample Canada (Class), Account Fireburnt
Other classes (OCL)

Other classes (OCL)

If a sample contains more than 10.0% other classes, it is designated Mixed. Mixed mustard seed is graded according to all specifications except other classes, as in Mustard Seed, No. 1 Canada Mixed.

Brown mustard seed

  • other classes are yellow and oriental mustard seed and Brassica Carinata.

Oriental mustard seed

  • other classes are yellow and brown mustard or Brassica Carinata.
Other class Tolerance
Brown mustard or Brown Brassica Carinata Working tolerance for seeds with brown hulls
  • For Canada No. 1 Oriental, 2.0%
  • For Canada No. 2, 3, 4 Oriental, 5.0%
Yellow mustard or Yellow Brassica Carinata Considered Mixed if sample contains more than 10.0% of yellow mustard seed

Yellow mustard seed

  • other classes are brown and oriental mustard seed or Brassica Carinata.
Other distinctly detrimental seeds (ODDET)

Other distinctly detrimental seeds (ODDET)

In yellow domestic mustard seed, the seeds listed below are considered Other distinctly detrimental seeds.

  • Ball mustard
  • Cleavers
  • Cockle
  • Dog mustard
  • Hare’s ear mustard
  • Stinkweed or pennycress
  • Tansy mustard
  • Tumbling mustard
  • Wild buckwheat
  • Wormseed mustard

Important:

Grain inspectors are authorized to withhold grades on samples with unidentifiable admixtures until results of analysis are confirmed by seed analysts.

Rime

Rime

Rime is the lining of the pod adhered to the seed. Seeds that are completely and densely covered with white rime, with the exception of the hilum, are classed as damaged in any grade. Seeds with light rime sparsely covering the seed coat are

  • Considered as sound if not otherwise damaged
  • Considered in the evaluation of colour. See Colour.
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a fungus producing hard masses of fungal tissue, called sclerotia. The sclerotia vary in size and shape, have a coarse surface texture, vary in exterior color from dark black to gray to white and have a pure white interior.

Soft earth pellets (SEP)

Soft earth pellets (SEP)

Soft earth pellets are

  • Earth pellets that crumble into fine dust under light pressure, using a finger only — if they do not crumble, they are considered Stones.
  • Any non-toxic material of similar consistency

Important:

In domestic mustard seed, fertilizer pellets are not considered soft earth pellets. See Fertilizer pellets.

Sprouted (SPTD)

Sprouted mustard is defined as those seeds having a ruptured seed coat in combination with either a sprout that protrudes beyond the normal contour of the seed or distinct swelling of the seed. Seeds having a ruptured seed coat that are otherwise sound are only considered sprouted when found in combination with seeds meeting the definition of sprouted.

Procedures

  1. Divide the sample to the appropriate representative portion.
  2. Handpick the representative portion for sprouted seeds.
  3. Determine the percentage by weight.

Note:

Sprouted mustard is included in “Total Damage” for grade assessment.

Stones (STNS)

Stones (STNS)

Stones are hard shale, coal, hard earth pellets, and any other non toxic materials of similar consistency.

Note:

Fertilizer pellets are not assessed as stones in samples of Domestic Mustard Seed. See Fertilizer pellets.

Procedures

  1. Handpick stones from a representative portion of the cleaned sample.
  2. Determine stone concentration in the net sample.
  • In western Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of “basic grade” tolerances, up to 2.5% are graded Domestic Mustard Seed, Rejected “basic grade” Account Stones. The “basic grade” refers to a grade established in the Canada Grain Regulations (grades listed in the first column in grade determinant tables) that would have been assigned to the sample if it contained no stones.
  • In eastern Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of grade tolerances are degraded to lower grades. Samples containing stones in excess of the tolerance of the lowest grade established by regulation up to 2.5% are graded Domestic Mustard Seed, Sample Canada (Class) Account Stones.
  • In western and eastern Canada grain containing more than 2.5% stones is graded Domestic Mustard Seed, Sample Salvage.

Examples: Western Canada

Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Domestic Mustard Seed
Grade name Stones %
No. 1 Canada 0.05
No. 2 Canada 0.05
No. 3 Canada 0.05
No. 4 Canada 0.10

Basic grade:....................... Domestic Mustard Seed, No. 2 Canada (Class)

Reason for basic grade:...... 2.0% Distinctly green

Grade in western Canada if stones found
If the above sample contained Grade in western Canada
0.08% stones Domestic Mustard Seed, Rejected No. 2 Canada (Class) Account Stones
1.0% stones Domestic Mustard Seed, Rejected No. 2 Canada (Class) Account Stones
3.0% stones Domestic Mustard Seed, Sample Salvage

Examples: Eastern Canada

Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Domestic Mustard Seed
Grade name Stones %
No. 1 Canada 0.05
No. 2 Canada 0.05
No. 3 Canada 0.05
No. 4 Canada 0.10

Basic grade:....................... Domestic Mustard Seed, No. 2 Canada (Class)

Reason for basic grade:...... 2.0% Distinctly green

Grade in eastern Canada if stones found
If the above sample contained Grade in eastern Canada
0.08% stones Domestic Mustard Seed, No. 4 Canada (Class)
1.0% stones Domestic Mustard Seed, Sample Canada (Class) Account Stones
3.0% stones Domestic Mustard Seed, Sample Salvage
Treated seed and other chemical substances

Treated seed and other chemical substances

Treated seed

Treated seed is grain that has been coated with an agricultural chemical for agronomic purposes. These seed dressings contain a dye to render the treated seed visually conspicuous. The colour of the dye varies depending upon the type of treatment and the type of grain. The current Canadian colour standards for pesticide seed treatments are: cereals–pink or red, canola–baby blue or green. Seed treated with an inoculant may have a green stain. The coatings or stains may appear greasy or powdery and surface area distribution ranges from tiny flecks to complete coverage.

Other chemical substances

Other chemical substances refers to any chemical residues either adhering to the kernel or remaining in the sample and to samples having a chemical odour of any kind.

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain contaminated grain.

If a sample is suspected of being coated with a pesticide, desiccant, inoculant or if the sample contains evidence of any foreign chemical substance other than fertilizer pellets, the sample shall be graded Domestic Mustard Seed, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.

Note:

Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for specific procedures to be followed when handling samples suspected of containing treated seed or other chemical substances.

Variety (VAR)

Variety (VAR)

Domestic mustard seed is graded without reference to variety.

Wild mustard (WM)

Wild mustard (WM)

Brown and oriental mustard seed

  • wild mustard seeds are classed as Inconspicuous admixture.

Yellow mustard seed

  • wild mustard seeds are classed as Distinctly detrimental.

Important:

Grain inspectors are authorized to withhold grades on samples with unidentifiable admixtures until results of analyses are confirmed by seed analysts.