Safflower seed - Chapter 15 | Official Grain Grading Guide

Grading factors

Contaminated grain

Contaminated grain

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any sample that is suspected of containing contaminated grain.

Contaminated is defined in the “Canada Grain Act” as; “Contaminated means, in respect of grain, containing any substance in sufficient quantity that the grain is unfit for consumption by persons or animals or is adulterated within the meaning of the regulations made pursuant to sections B.01.046(1), B.15.001 and B.15.002(1) of the Food and Drugs Act.”

Samples deemed to be contaminated by the Grain Research Laboratory in consultation with the Chief Grain Inspector for Canada are graded Safflower Seed, Sample Condemned.

Damage (DMGE)

Damage (DMGE)

Damaged seeds are frosted, green, broken, heated, insect-damaged or otherwise unsound.

Dehulled (DHULL)

Dehulled (DHULL)

Intact safflower seeds are called “achenes” which consists of the hull containing the seed. Dehulled seeds are broken or whole seeds without hulls.

Earth pellets (EP)

Earth pellets (EP)

  • Hard earth pellets are pellets that do not crumble under light pressure. See Stones.
  • Soft earth pellets are pellets that crumble under light pressure. See Soft earth pellets.
Empty hulls (HULLS)

Empty hulls (HULLS)

Intact safflower seeds are called “achenes” which consists of the hull containing the seed. Empty hulls are achenes with intact hulls but which contain no seeds. This also includes hulls having less than one-third of the seed attached.

Excreta (EXCR)

Excreta (EXCR)

Excrement from any animal including mammals, birds and insects.

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain excreta.

Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)

Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)

Fertilizer pellets are a manufactured plant nutrient product used by producers in the production of grain. They are typically small, round or irregular shaped and usually white, grey, brown, pink or reddish in colour.

Note:

Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for procedures to be followed when handling samples containing fertilizer pellets.

Procedures

  • Handpick any fertilizer pellets and determine the concentration basis the net working sample.
  • Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when the concentration does not exceed 1.0% of the net sample weight.
  • Samples containing fertilizer pellets in excess of 1.0% of the net sample weight are graded Safflower Seed, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.
Foreign material (FM)

Foreign material (FM)

Foreign material is anything other than safflower that remains in the sample after the removal of dockage. Some types of foreign material have separate tolerances.

Heated (HTD)

Heated (HTD)

Heated seeds have the colour or odour typical of grain that has heated or deteriorated in storage. Heated kernels include kernels discoloured from artificial drying, but not charred kernels. Heated seeds of other grains are included in the tolerance for Heated.

Matter other than cereal grains (MOTCG)

Matter other than cereal grains (MOTCG)

Matter other than cereal grains refers to weed seeds and other grains that are not readily removable and may include

  • Peas, lentils, beans, corn, other domestic or wild seeds
  • Ergot and sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Odour (ODOR)

Odour (ODOR)

There is no numeric tolerance for odour. Consider

  • The basic quality of the sample
  • The type and degree of the odour
  • The presence of visible residue causing the odour
Heated, fireburnt and odour for safflower seed.
If odour is the grade determinant and there is . . . Then the grade is . . .
An excessive objectionable odour not associated with the quality of the grain, but not heated or fireburnt Safflower Seed, Sample Canada, Account Odour
An excessive heated odour Safflower Seed, Sample Canada, Account Heated
An excessive fireburnt odour Safflower Seed, Sample Canada, Account Fireburnt
Other grains (OGRN)

Other grains (OGRN)

Other grains in safflower seed include wheat,rye, triticale, barley, oats and groats, including wild oat groats, that remain in the cleaned sample.

Rotted (ROT)

Rotted (ROT)

Seeds have the colour or odour typical of grain that has heated or deteriorated in storage. Rotted seed is considered in combination with heat-damaged kernels.

Soft earth pellets (SEP)

Soft earth pellets (SEP)

Soft earth pellets are pellets that crumble under light pressure—if they do not crumble, they are considered stones. These pellets can be

  • Earth and fertilizer pellets
  • Any non-toxic material of similar consistency

Soft earth pellets in safflower seed are considered as Foreign material.

Stones (STNS)

Stones (STNS)

Stones are hard shale, coal, hard earth pellets, and any other non toxic materials of similar consistency. Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when constituting 1.0% or less of the net sample weight. (See Fertilizer pellets for specific procedures to be followed when samples contain fertilizer pellets.)

Procedures

  1. Handpick stones from a representative portion of the cleaned sample.
  2. Determine stone concentration in the net sample.
  • In western Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of “basic grade” tolerances, up to 2.5% are graded Safflower Seed, Rejected “basic grade” Account Stones. The “basic grade” refers to a grade established in the Canada Grain Regulations (grades listed in the first column in grade determinant tables) that would have been assigned to the sample if it contained no stones.
  • In eastern Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of grade tolerances are degraded to lower grades. Samples containing stones in excess of the tolerance of the lowest grade established by regulation up to 2.5% are graded Safflower Seed, Sample Canada Account Stones.
  • In western and eastern Canada grain containing more than 2.5% stones is graded Safflower Seed, Sample Salvage.

Examples: Western Canada

Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Safflower Seed, Canada
Grade name Stones %
No. 1 Canada 0.1
No. 2 Canada 0.1
No. 3 Canada 0.1

Basic grade:....................... Safflower Seed, No. 2 Canada

Reason for basic grade:...... 4.0% Dehulled

Grade in westtern Canada if stones found.
If the above sample contained Grade in western Canada
0.2% stones Safflower Seed, Rejected No. 2 Canada Account Stones
3.0% stones Safflower Seed, Sample Salvage

Examples: Eastern Canada

Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Safflower Seed, Canada
Grade name Stones
No. 1 Canada 0.1
No. 2 Canada 0.1
No. 3 Canada 0.1

Basic grade:....................... Safflower Seed, No. 2 Canada

Reason for basic grade:...... 4.0% Dehulled

Grade in eastern Canada if stones found.
If the above sample contained Grade in eastern Canada
6K stones Safflower Seed, Sample Canada Account Stones
3.0% stones Safflower Seed, Sample Salvage
Treated seed and other chemical substances

Treated seed and other chemical substances

Treated seed

Treated seed is grain that has been coated with an agricultural chemical for agronomic purposes. These seed dressings contain a dye to render the treated seed visually conspicuous. The colour of the dye varies depending upon the type of treatment and the type of grain. The current Canadian colour standards for pesticide seed treatments are: cereals–pink or red, canola–baby blue or green. Seed treated with an inoculant may have a green stain. The coatings or stains may appear greasy or powdery and surface area distribution ranges from tiny flecks to complete coverage.

Other chemical substances

Other chemical substances refers to any chemical residues either adhering to the kernel or remaining in the sample and to samples having a chemical odour of any kind.

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain contaminated grain.

If a sample is suspected of being coated with a pesticide, desiccant, inoculant or if the sample contains evidence of any foreign chemical substance other than fertilizer pellets, the sample shall be graded Safflower Seed, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.

Note:

Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for specific procedures to be followed when handling samples suspected of containing treated seed or other chemical substances.

Varieties

Varieties

Safflower seed is graded without reference to variety.