Peas – Chapter 16 | Official Grain Grading Guide

Grading factors

Important:

Images may vary in appearance due to factors such as monitor settings, viewing distance/angle and surrounding light.

Binburnt

Binburnt

Binburnt refers to peas that are blackened as a result of severe heating in storage. There is a single tolerance in feed peas for the total of heated and binburnt.

Bleached (BLCH)camera icon

Bleached (BLCH)

Bleached applies to green peas only.

Green peas are considered bleached if one-eighth or more of the surface of the cotyledon is bleached to a distinct yellow colour which is in marked contrast to its natural colour.

Procedures

  1. Examine a representative portion of the cleaned sample for any distinctly bleached or suspect bleached green peas.
  2. Remove the seed coat from suspect seeds to determine the size of the bleached area on the cotyledons.
No discolouration on germ and thin line of discolouration in crease. Not considered as Smudge.
Figure 1. The two peas indicated are considered to be bleached green peas. The pea in the centre has the overall distinct yellow colour, whereas the circled portion on the second pea indicates that 1/8th of the pea is distinct yellow and therefore meets the definition.

The balance of the peas in the picture are not bleached. These peas are not "distinct yellow" and in fact show a "bleed" of green through the yellow.

Note:

It can be difficult to determine if a pea is bleached without removing enough of the seed coat. Figure 1 shows the peas' colour in contrast with the seed coat. Removing the seed coat over the entire bleached area allows the comparison to its natural colour.

Classes

Classes

There are two classes of peas, green and other than green. The class forms part of the grade name.See Peas of other colours.

Colour (CLR)

Colour (CLR)

Colour as a grade determinant is assessed after the removal of damaged peas and peas of other colours.

Colour grade for peas.
If peas are . . . . Colour is . . .
A bright, normal colour, lightly earth tagged or lightly stained Good
Moderately immature, moderately earth tagged or stained Fair
Grade of yellow peas depending on type of damage.
If a sample of yellow peas contains . . . The sample is . . .
Green peas Considered damaged only if peas are damaged from another cause
Whole or split peas which are distinctly green throughout as a result of immaturity or variety Peas of other colours
Immature yellow peas Considered damaged only if peas are damaged from another cause
Immature, but not distinctly green, peas Not considered damaged, but taken into account in the general evaluation of the sample
Contaminated grain

Contaminated grain

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any sample that is suspected of containing contaminated grain.

Contaminated is defined in the “Canada Grain Act” as; “Contaminated means, in respect of grain, containing any substance in sufficient quantity that the grain is unfit for consumption by persons or animals or is adulterated within the meaning of the regulations made pursuant to sections B.01.046(1), B.15.001 and B.15.002(1) of the Food and Drugs Act.”

Samples deemed to be contaminated by the Grain Research Laboratory in consultation with the Chief Grain Inspector for Canada are graded Peas, Sample Condemned.

Cracked seed coats (CSDC)

Cracked seed coats (CSDC)

Cracked seed coats includes

  • Peas with cracked seed coats—if the peas are otherwise damaged, they are included in the tolerance for damage, not cracked seed coats
  • Peas with all or part of the seed coat removed
  • Broken peas with less than one-fourth of the pea broken off—broken peas with more than one-fourth of the pea broken off are considered damaged
Damage (DMG)

Damage (DMG)

Damaged peas include

  • Split or broken peas where more than one-fourth of the pea is broken off
  • Whole peas that are sprouted, heated, shrivelled, damaged by insects, badly deteriorated or discoloured by weather or by disease, or that are otherwise damaged in a way that seriously affects their appearance or quality
Earth pellets

Earth pellets

See Foreign material.

Ergot (ERG)

Ergot (ERG)

Ergot is a plant disease producing elongated fungus bodies that have a purplish-black exterior, a purplish-white to off-white interior, and a relatively smooth surface texture.

Excreta (EXCR)

Excreta (EXCR)

Excrement from any animal including mammals, birds and insects.

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain excreta.

Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)

Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)

Fertilizer pellets are a manufactured plant nutrient product used by producers in the production of grain. They are typically small, round or irregular shaped and usually white, grey, brown, pink or reddish in colour.

Note:

Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for procedures to be followed when handling samples containing fertilizer pellets.

Procedures

  • Handpick any fertilizer pellets and determine the concentration basis the net working sample.
  • Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when the concentration does not exceed 1.0% of the net sample weight.
  • Samples containing fertilizer pellets in excess of 1.0% of the net sample weight are graded Peas, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.
Fireburnt (FBNT)

Fireburnt (FBNT)

Fireburnt kernels have been charred or scorched by fire. No fireburnt kernels are  allowed in peas, split peas or feed peas.

Foreign material (FM)

Foreign material (FM)

Foreign material is not a grading factor in feed peas. Foreign material is any material other than peas, broken peas or pea seed coats.

Heated (HTD)

Heated (HTD)

Peas or split peas that have dull seed coats and discoloured cotyledons ranging from light tan to dark brown are considered heated.

Procedures

  1. Pick out heated peas by hand.
  2. Cut the kernels to expose the cotyledon.
  3. Heated seeds of other grains are included in the tolerance for Heated.
Peas with heated damage
If peas are . . . Grading is . . .
Lightly damaged, with tan-coloured meats and distinct heated odour Heated
Otherwise Damaged
Inert material

Inert material

Inert material refers to mineral matter such as stones, coal shale and hard and soft earth pellets.

Insect damage (I DMG)

Insect damage (I DMG)

Insect damage in peas or split peas refers to damage caused by insects such as weevils.

Insect parts (I PARTS)

Insect parts (I PARTS)

Insect parts refers to pieces of insects such as grasshoppers and lady bugs that remain in the sample after cleaning or processing. Samples are analyzed for the percentage of insect fragments and graded according to established tolerances.

If pulse crops come into contact with insects during the harvesting process, it may result in seed staining and earth adhering to the seed and may result in samples having an objectionable odour.  Samples containing staining of this nature will be considered to be earth tagged and graded according to colour definitions. Samples having a distinct objectionable odour not associated with the quality of the grain will be graded Type of Grain Sample Account Odour.

Marsh spot

Marsh spot

This nutritional disorder, caused by manganese deficiency in the soil, results in dark reddish brown spots or cavities on the inner surface of the cotyledons. Marsh spot is considered Other damage in peas.

Procedure

Pearl the representative portion to split and expose the inner surface of the cotyledon.

Odour (ODOR)

Odour (ODOR)

There is no numeric tolerance for odour. Consider

  • The basic quality of the sample
  • The type and degree of the odour
  • The presence of visible residue causing the odour
Heated, fireburnt and odour for peas.
If odour is the grade determinant and there is.... Then the grade is....
An excessive objectionable odour not associated with the quality of the grain, but not heated or fireburnt Peas, Sample Canada (colour and size) Account Odour
An excessive heated odour Peas, Sample Canada (colour and size) Account Heated
An excessive fireburnt odour Peas, Sample Canada (colour and size) Account Fireburnt
Other damage (ODMG)

Other damage (ODMG)

Other damage is

  • Any damage other than splits, insect damage, heated or shrivelled
  • Any discolouration or physical damage on the face of the cotyledon
Pink peas

Pink peas

Pink peas refers to staining caused by the bacteria Erwinia Rhapontici

Food peas

  • Surface discolouration is to be considered in the overall colour assessment of the sample
  • Discolouration that extends into the cotyledons to be considered damaged

Feed peas

  • Colour is not a factor
  • Care must be taken in assessing these pink peas as there are pink seed treatments for peas being used. Questionable samples are to be handled as per the ISO national procedure for handling suspect contaminated seeds.
Peas of other colours (POOCLR)

Peas of other colours (POOCLR)

Colour is determined by the cotyledon colour and, in the case of Maple, Austrian and Dun peas, seed coat and cotyledon colour. Peas of other colours includes any whole and split peas that are obviously of another colour or class.

Pulses other than green, yellow or orange peas

Pulses other than green, yellow or orange peas

In feed peas, pulses other than green, yellow or orange peas refers specifically to maple and marrowfat peas. These are not considered as part of foreign material. Other pulses such as beans, chick peas and lentils are included in foreign material.

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a fungus producing hard masses of fungal tissue, called sclerotia. The sclerotia vary in size and shape, have a coarse surface texture, vary in exterior color from dark black to gray to white and have a pure white interior. See Foreign material.

Shrivelled (SHV)

Shrivelled (SHV)

Shrivelled peas are distinctly distorted and shrunken, or have a severely dimpled surface.

Splits (SPLTS)

Splits (SPLTS)

Splits include split peas, pea hulls, split peas of other colours, broken pieces that are less than three-quarters of the whole seed, and cotyledons that are loosely held together by the seed coat.

Treated seed and other chemical substances

Treated seed and other chemical substances

Treated seed

Treated seed is grain that has been coated with an agricultural chemical for agronomic purposes. These seed dressings contain a dye to render the treated seed visually conspicuous. The colour of the dye varies depending upon the type of treatment and the type of grain. The current Canadian colour standards for pesticide seed treatments are: cereals–pink or red, canola–baby blue or green. Seed treated with an inoculant may have a green stain. The coatings or stains may appear greasy or powdery and surface area distribution ranges from tiny flecks to complete coverage.

Other chemical substances

Other chemical substances refers to any chemical residues either adhering to the kernel or remaining in the sample and to samples having a chemical odour of any kind.

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain contaminated grain.

If a sample is suspected of being coated with a pesticide, desiccant, inoculant or if the sample contains evidence of any foreign chemical substance other than fertilizer pellets, the sample shall be graded Peas, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.

Note:

Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for specific procedures to be followed when handling samples suspected of containing treated seed or other chemical substances.

Variety

Variety

On written request, the variety is shown as part of the grade name, for example, Peas, No. 2 Canada, Trapper. “Varietal purity not guaranteed” is shown in the Remarks section of certificate issued using a varietal name.