Lentils – Chapter 18 | Official Grain Grading Guide

Grading factors

Important:

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Ascochyta

Ascochyta

Ascochyta is a fungal disease that attacks the lentil plant and seed. Any degree of white fungal growth on the seed is considered damaged. See Damage.

Bleached

Bleached

Bleached seeds have a whitened seed coat that is distinctly faded from the natural red colour of sound lentils. The discoloration must affect the entire seed coat. Lentils having a lighter pink shade that are contrasting with the overall sample are considered sound.

The red lentil colour guide may be used to assist in the determination of bleached seeds.

Broken

Broken

See Peeled, split and broken.

Colour (CLR)

Colour (CLR)

Lentils, other than Red

Colour is evaluated after the removal of stained and damaged lentils, using approved lentil colour guides.

Terms used to describe colour in the grade determinants tables
Description used in grade determinants table Characteristics
Good natural colour Lentils that are sound, well matured and have a good natural colour.
Reasonably good natural colour Lentils with light amounts of adhered soil or lightly discoloured from storage or other natural causes.
Fair colour Lentils with moderate amounts of adhered soil, or otherwise moderately discoloured from natural causes.
Poor colour Lentils that do not meet the definition of fair colour, but are without severely adhered soil or are severely discoloured (dark brown).

The term sunburned or oxidation is used to describe the normal discolouration of the seed coat which occurs during storage. The colour may vary from light tan to brown or very dark brown, depending on the duration and conditions of storage.

Lentils, Red

Colour is evaluated by using the following guidelines.

Terms used to describe colour in the grade determinants tables
Description used in grade determinants table Characteristics
Copper % Total bleached including copper % Adhered Soil
Good natural colour 1 3 Light amounts of adhered soil
Reasonably good natural colour 3 10 Moderate amounts of adhered soil
Fair colour 10 25 Heavy amounts of adhered soil
Poor colour Lentils that do not meet the definition of fair colour.
Contaminated grain

Contaminated grain

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any sample that is suspected of containing contaminated grain.

Contaminated is defined in the “Canada Grain Act” as; “Contaminated means, in respect of grain, containing any substance in sufficient quantity that the grain is unfit for consumption by persons or animals or is adulterated within the meaning of the regulations made pursuant to sections B.01.046(1), B.15.001 and B.15.002(1) of the Food and Drugs Act.”

Samples deemed to be contaminated by the Grain Research Laboratory in consultation with the Chief Grain Inspector for Canada are graded Lentils, Sample Condemned.

Contrasting colours

Contrasting colours

Contrasting colours refers to cotyledon colour and significantly different seed coat colour.

  • Cotyledons: red cotyledons contrast with yellow cotyledons
  • Seed coats: dark-green speckled lentils contrast with green lentils
Copper

Copper

Copper seeds have a rust color covering both sides of seed and the entire seed coat. The rust colour is in distinct contrast with the natural red colour of sound lentils.

The red lentil colour guide may be used to assist in the determination of copper seeds.

Damage (DMG)

Damage (DMG)

Damaged lentils may be peeled, split, broken, sprouted, distinctly green, frost damaged, distinctly deteriorated or discoloured by weather or disease, insect damaged, heat damaged or otherwise damaged in a way which materially affects quality.

Important:

Kernels that are deformed are considered sound unless there is another reason for the damage beyond the deformity.

Note:

For green cotyledon varieties, do not assess distinctly green cotyledons as damage. For example; Queen Green variety.

Procedures

  1. Handpick suspect damaged lentils.
  2. Lentils showing some indication of possible internal damage are to be cut for confirmation of damage.
Earth pellets (EP)

Earth pellets (EP)

  • Hard earth pellets are pellets that do not crumble under light pressure. See Stones.
  • Soft earth pellets are pellets that crumble under light pressure. See Foreign material.
Ergot (ERG)

Ergot (ERG)

Ergot is a plant disease producing elongated fungus bodies with a purplish-black exterior, a purplish-white to off white interior, and a relatively smooth surface texture.

Excreta (EXCR)

Excreta (EXCR)

Excrement from any animal including mammals, birds and insects.

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain excreta.

Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)

Fertilizer pellets (FERT PLTS)

Fertilizer pellets are a manufactured plant nutrient product used by producers in the production of grain. They are typically small, round or irregular shaped and usually white, grey, brown, pink or reddish in colour.

Note:

Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspect Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for procedures to be followed when handling samples containing fertilizer pellets.

Procedures

  1. Handpick any fertilizer pellets and determine the concentration basis the net working sample.
  2. Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when the concentration does not exceed 1.0% of the net sample weight.
  3. Samples containing fertilizer pellets in excess of 1.0% of the net sample weight are graded Lentils, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.
Fireburnt (FBNT)

Fireburnt (FBNT)

Fireburnt seeds are seeds charred or scorched by fire. A cross-section of a fireburnt seed resembles charcoal with numerous air holes. The air holes result in a low weight seed which crumbles easily under pressure.

Procedure

Samples of lentil containing any fireburnt seeds are graded Lentil, Sample Canada Account Fireburnt.

Foreign material (FM)

Foreign material (FM)

Foreign material includes anything that is not a lentil or part of a lentil.

Frost damage (FR)

Frost damage (FR)

Frost damage is normally indicated by a combination of wrinkling and close adherence of the seed coat to the cotelydon. The seed coat may be translucent in appearance, and the cotyledons are brittle in texture. Frost damage is included in the tolerance for Other Damage.

Procedures

  1. Handpick all frost-damaged lentils.
  2. Cut suspect frost-damaged lentils. Frost-damaged seeds are brittle when cut.
Heated (HTD)

Heated (HTD)

Heated lentils are usually dark tan to black in appearance.

Grading factor to determined Heated or Damaged lentils.
If sample contains . . . Then the grading factor is . . .
Lentils with tan-coloured cotyledons and a distinct heated odour Heated
Lentils with tan-coloured cotyledons and no odour Damage

Procedures

  1. Handpick suspect heated lentils.
  2. Cut suspect seeds to expose the cotyledons. Heated lentils have tan-coloured cotyledons.
Insect parts (I PARTS)

Insect parts (I PARTS)

Insect parts refers to pieces of insects such as grasshoppers and lady bugs that remain in the sample after cleaning or processing. Samples are analyzed for the percentage of insect fragments and graded according to established tolerances.

If pulse crops come into contact with insects during the harvesting process, it may result in seed staining and earth adhering to the seed and may result in samples having an objectionable odour. Samples containing staining of this nature will be considered to be earth tagged and graded according to colour definitions. Samples having a distinct objectionable odour not associated with the quality of the grain will be graded Type of Grain Sample Account Odour.

Odour (ODOR)

Odour (ODOR)

There is no numeric tolerance for odour. Consider

  • The basic quality of the sample
  • The type and degree of the odour
  • The presence of visible residue causing the odour
Heated, fireburnt and odour for lentils.
If odour is the grade determinant and there is . . . Then the grade is . . .
An excessive objectionable odour not associated with the quality of the grain, but not heated or fireburnt Lentils, Sample Canada Account Odour
An excessive heated odour Lentils, Sample Canada Account Heated
An excessive fireburnt odour Lentils, Sample Canada Account Fireburnt
Other damage (ODMG)

Other damage (ODMG)

Other damage is any damage other than heated, or peeled, split and broken.

Peeled, split and broken (PLDSPLTBKN)

Peeled, split and broken (PLDSPLTBKN)

Peeled, split and broken includes lentils which are otherwise sound but which are less than three-quarters of whole seeds or where less than one-half of the seed coat is intact.

Lentils with cracked or clipped seed coats are considered sound when the cotyledons are firmly held together.

Rime (RIME)

Rime (RIME)

Rime is the adhered lining of the seed pod. It is included in the general tolerance for Damage.
If the rime . . . Then the grading is . . .
Completely and densely covers the lentils Damaged
Is sparse enough to expose the soundness of the lentil Sound—the rime is considered in the general appearance of the sample
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SCL)

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a fungus producing hard masses of fungal tissue, called sclerotia. The sclerotia vary in size and shape, have a coarse surface texture, vary in exterior color from dark black to gray to white and have a pure white interior.

Split

Split

See Peeled, split and broken.

Sprouted (SPTD)

Sprouted (SPTD)

Lentils are considered sprouted when the seed coat splits and the primary sprout emerges from between the cotyledons or the primary sprout has been broken off but there is clear evidence of sprouting. Sprouted is considered in the tolerance for Other Damage.

Stained (STND)camera icon

Stained (STND)

Stained lentils includes (only applies to lentils, other than red)

  • Mottled seeds—seeds with a significant number of distinct spots on the seed coat
  • Water spot—seeds with distinct brown discolourations on the seed coat
  • Ascochyta—seeds with dark-coloured lesions on the seed coat. Seeds with white fungal growth are also considered as damaged. See Ascochyta.
  • Blue-black—seeds of green lentils with significant blue-black discolourartion of the seed coat. Seeds of varieties of lentils with dark-green speckled or coloured seed coats are considered as Contrasting colours.
Stained
Stained
Damaged-Ascochyta, also considered stained
Damaged-Ascochyta, also considered stained
Mottled, considered as stained
Mottled, considered as stained
Not stained
Not stained
Stones (STNS)

Stones (STNS)

Stones are hard shale, coal, hard earth pellets, and any other non toxic materials of similar consistency. Fertilizer pellets are assessed as stones when constituting 1.0% or less of the net sample weight. (See Fertilizer pellets for specific procedures to be followed when samples contain fertilizer pellets.)

Procedures

  1. Handpick stones from a representative portion of the cleaned sample.
  2. Determine stone concentration in the net sample.
  • In western Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of “basic grade” tolerances, up to 2.5% are graded Lentils, Rejected “basic grade” Account Stones. The “basic grade” refers to a grade established in the Canada Grain Regulations (grades listed in the first column in grade determinant tables) that would have been assigned to the sample if it contained no stones.
  • In eastern Canada samples of grain containing stones in excess of grade tolerances are degraded to lower grades. Samples containing stones in excess of the tolerance of the lowest grade established by regulation up to 2.5% are graded Lentils, Sample Canada Account Stones.
  • In western and eastern Canada grain containing more than 2.5% stones is graded Lentils, Sample Salvage.

Examples: Western Canada

Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Lentils, Canada Red
Grade name Stones %
No. 1 Canada Red 0.10
No. 2 Canada Red 0.2
Extra No. 3 Canada Red 0.2
No. 3 Canada Red 0.2

Basic grade:....................... Lentils, No. 1 Canada Red

Grade in Western Canada if stones found.
If the above sample contained Grade in western Canada
0.2% stones Lentils, Rejected No. 1 Canada Red Account Stones
1.0% stones Lentils, Rejected No. 1 Canada Red Account Stones
3.0% stones Lentils, Sample Salvage

Examples: Eastern Canada

Excerpt from grade determinant tables for Lentils, Canada Red
Grade name Stones %
No. 1 Canada Red 0.10
No. 2 Canada Red 0.2
Extra No. 3 Canada Red 0.2
No. 3 Canada Red 0.2

Basic grade:....................... Lentils, No. 1 Canada Red

Grade in Eastern Canada if stones found.
If the above sample contained Grade in Eastern Canada
0.2% stones Lentils, No. 2 Canada Red
1.0% stones Lentils, Sample Canada Red Account Stones
3.0% stones Lentils, Sample Salvage
Treated seed and other chemical substances

Treated seed and other chemical substances

Treated seed

Treated seed is grain that has been coated with an agricultural chemical for agronomic purposes. These seed dressings contain a dye to render the treated seed visually conspicuous. The colour of the dye varies depending upon the type of treatment and the type of grain. The current Canadian colour standards for pesticide seed treatments are: cereals–pink or red, canola–baby blue or green. Seed treated with an inoculant may have a green stain. The coatings or stains may appear greasy or powdery and surface area distribution ranges from tiny flecks to complete coverage.

Other chemical substances

Other chemical substances refers to any chemical residues either adhering to the kernel or remaining in the sample and to samples having a chemical odour of any kind.

Important:

Wear gloves and a mask to handle any samples that you suspect may contain contaminated grain.

If a sample is suspected of being coated with a pesticide, desiccant, inoculant or if the sample contains evidence of any foreign chemical substance other than fertilizer pellets, the sample shall be graded Lentils, Held IP Suspect Contaminated Grain.

Note:

Canadian Grain Commission personnel should refer to ISO national work instruction “Suspected Contaminated Grain, Handling Procedures” for specific procedures to be followed when handling samples suspected of containing treated seed or other chemical substances.

Variety

Variety

On written request, the lentil variety forms part of the grade name, for example, No. 1 Canada, Laird.

Important:

State “Varietal purity not guaranteed” in the remarks section of grading certificates.

Wrinkled

Wrinkled

Wrinkled seeds are characterized by a seed surface that has sharp ridges and pronounced depressions that could also be described as seed coat folds and indents. Wrinkles may be evident only on one side of the lentil. Lentils that only have dimpled seed coat or folds restricted only to the outside ring of the seed are considered sound.

The red lentil wrinkled guide may be used to assist in the determination of wrinkled seeds.

Note: Wrinkled only applies to red lentils