Canadian Grain Commission
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Canadian wheat

Eastern Canadian wheat classes

Approximately 1.2 million MT of wheat is produced annually in the southern Ontario peninsula between the Great Lakes (5-yr average from 1998 to 2002). There are four wheat classes grown in Ontario: Canada Eastern White Winter (CEWW), Canada Eastern Soft Red Winter (CESRW), Canada Eastern Hard Red Winter (CEHRW) and Canada Eastern Red Spring (CERS). Approximately 150 thousand MT of wheat is produced annually in southern Quebec, almost exclusively hard red spring wheat. In the Maritimes production is variable, but in a typical year about 30 thousand MT of red winter wheat and about 70 thousand MT of spring wheat is produced annually.

There are three milling grades of CEWW, CESRW, CEHRW and CERS. KVD was removed as a criteria for red wheat registration in Eastern Canada in 1989, but is still required for white winter wheat varieties. When red wheat is delivered, the class is declared for binning and grading. If the class is not declared, the wheat is binned and graded as Canada Eastern Red (CER) wheat with no class designation. CER is marketed at a lower price than designated red wheat.

Until 2001, the Ontario Wheat Producers’ Marketing Board (OWPMB) was the sole marketing agency for Ontario wheat. Ontario now has a dual marketing system. Producers may deliver to the OWPMB, or may obtain an exemption and sell their product to an agent authorized to buy wheat. All wheat produced in Quebec and the Maritimes is marketed privately. Typical quality of eastern Canadian wheat is represented by quality data from the Canadian Grain Commission 2002 Ontario wheat harvest survey in Table 10. CEWW and CESRW are both soft wheat classes with low protein and weak gluten making them well suited to confectionary products. CEHRW and CERS are used primarily for baking by the domestic milling industry, in blends with western Canadian wheat.

Table 10. Quality of No 1 grades of Ontario CEWW, CESRW, CEHRW and CERS from the 2002 harvest. ¹
Source: Quality of Ontario wheat 2002 (CGC 2002b). Wheat analytical data expressed on 13.5% mb; flour analytical data expressed on 14% mb. Test methods as described in CGC (2003b)
Test weight, kg/hL 79.2 79.1 81.1 82.3
Falling Number, s 350 350 350 310
Protein content, % 9.3 11.1 13.4 14.0
Flour yield, % 76.5 74.7 75.5 75.2
Protein content, % 8.5 8.7 10.9 13.1
Ash content, % 0.50 0.47 0.54 0.51
Absorption, % 49.8 50.0 58.3 65.3
Development time, min 1 1 ¼ 3 ¼ 5 ½
Stability, min 2 ½ 3 5 ½ 9