Quality of Canadian non-food grade soybeans 2013

Fatty acid composition and free fatty acid content

Fatty acid composition

Table 6 shows fatty acid composition for No. 1 and 2 grade composites from eastern and western regions.

Ontario composites of the top 2 grades showed some differences in their fatty acid profiles. Soybean, No. 1 Canada had an alpha-linolenic value of 8.3% and an iodine value of 132 units.  The alpha-linolenic value for Soybean, No. 2 Canada was  9.1%, and the iodine value was 134 units.

The 2013 Quebec Soybean, No. 2 Canada had an alpha-linolenic value of 11.9% and an iodine value of 143 units.  

Manitoba composites of the top 2 grades showed slight differences in their fatty acid profiles. Soybean, No. 1 Canada had an alpha-linolenic value of 8.2% and an iodine value of 133 units.  The alpha-linolenic value for Soybean, No. 2 Canada was 8.95%, and the iodine value was 134 units.

Variety selection, soil fertility and environmental growing conditions also contribute to the difference in the fatty acid composition between the eastern and western regions.

Free fatty acid (FFA) content

Grade composites showed low free fatty acid levels, averaging 0.05% for Soybean, No. 1 Canada and 0.15% for Soybean, No. 2 Canada. (Table 6) Higher free fatty acid values are mainly due to seed damage, which results from exposure to moisture and oxygen, wet harvesting conditions and improper storage.

Table 6. Fatty acid composition and free fatty acid content for 2013 harvest survey soybean grade composites
Province No. of samples Fatty acid composition Footnote 1 Iodine value Footnote 2 Free fatty acids, %
C16:0 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3
Soybean, No. 1 Canada
Manitoba 3 10.2 4.3 21.9 53.5 8.2 133 0.05
Ontario 59 10.6 4.1 23.2 52.1 8.3 132 0.05
PEI 1 10.2 3.6 18 56.2 10.4 140 0.08
All provinces Footnote 3 63 10.5 4.1 23 52.3 8.3 132 0.05
Soybean, No. 2 Canada
Manitoba 61 10.5 4.1 21.9 52.8 8.9 133 0.03
Saskatchewan 15 10.6 4.6 21.3 51.9 9.8 133 0.06
Ontario 158 10.5 4.1 21.9 52.9 8.9 134 0.2
Quebec 11 10.1 3.3 16.5 56.5 11.9 143 0.24
PEI 3 9.8 3.4 17.8 56.9 10.5 141 0.08
New Brunswick 1 9.6 3.7 20.7 56.1 8.2 136 0.06
All provinces 249 10.5 4.1 21.6 53.1 9.1 134 0.15

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Percentage of total fatty acids including palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), and linolenic (C18:3); other minor fatty acids totaled 1.4% to 2.0%

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Footnote 2

Calculated from the fatty acid composition

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Footnote 3

Weighted Averages

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