Quality of Canadian food-type soybeans 2014

Contact

Ning Wang
Program Manager, Pulse Research, Grain Research Laboratory
1404-303 Main Street
Winnipeg MB  R3C 3G8
Telephone: 204-983-2154 or
Toll-free 1-800-853-6705
Email: ning.wang@grainscanada.gc.ca

Introduction

This report presents the quality data for the 2014 harvest survey of Canadian food-type soybeans conducted by the Canadian Grain Commission. Soybean samples for food uses such as tofu, soymilk, miso and natto were submitted by soybean producers and processors from across Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec to the Canadian Grain Commission’s Grain Research Laboratory for analysis.

Harvest survey samples

The Canadian Grain Commission received a total of 187 food-type soybean samples. The Canadian Grain Commission’s Industry Services graded all of the samples. Composite samples were prepared based on end-use (generic or natto) and province (Manitoba, Ontario or Quebec). All samples were tested for protein and oil content. Composite samples were analyzed for 100-seed weight, water absorption capacity, nitrogen solubility index (NSI), and protein, oil, sugar and total isoflavones content. Due to insufficient natto-type samples, only results for generic food-type soybeans were included in this report. It is important to note that samples reported by grade do not necessarily represent the actual distribution of grade.

Quality of 2014 Canadian food-type soybeans

Protein and oil content

Protein content for 2014 Canadian food-type soybeans ranged from 36.3 g to 51.4 g per 100 g dry matter (Table 1). The mean protein content in 2014 was 40.6 g per 100 g dry matter, which was lower than the mean in 2013 (41.3 g per 100 g dry matter). The mean protein contents for Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec for 2014 were 37.2, 40.6 and 44.0 g per 100 g dry matter, respectively.

Oil content for 2014 Canadian food-type soybeans varied from 16.4 g to 23.1 g per 100 g dry matter (Table 2). The mean oil content in 2014 was 21.1 g per 100 g dry matter, which was the same as that for 2013. The mean oil content for Manitoba in 2014 was 21.9 g per 100 g dry matter, which was higher than the mean for 2013. The mean oil content for Ontario in 2014 was 21.1 g per 100 g dry matter, which was similar to that for 2013. The mean oil content for Quebec in 2014 was 19.9 g per 100 g dry matter, which was higher than the mean for 2013.

Table 1 - Mean protein content for 2014 Canadian food-type soybeans by grade and provinceFootnote 1
Grade Protein content, g/100 g DM
2014 2013
Mean Range Mean
Manitoba
Soybean, No. 1 Canada N/AFootnote 2 N/A N/A
Soybean, No. 2 Canada 37.2 36.5–38.0 41.2
All grades 37.2 36.5–38.0 41.2
Ontario
Soybean, No. 1 Canada 40.6 37.7–43.3 41.4
Soybean, No. 2 Canada 40.2 36.6–46.0 41.2
All grades 40.6 36.6–46.0 41.3
Quebec
Soybean, No. 1 Canada N/A N/A N/A
Soybean, No. 2 Canada 44.0 40.8–51.4 44.8
All grades 44.0 40.8–51.4 44.8
Canada
Soybean, No. 1 Canada 40.6 37.7–43.3 41.4
Soybean, No. 2 Canada 40.7 36.5–51.4 41.5
All grades 40.6 36.3–51.4 41.4
Table 2 – Mean oil content for 2014 Canadian food-type soybeans by grade and provinceFootnote 3
Grade Oil content, g/100 g DM
2014 2013
Mean Range Mean
Manitoba
Soybean, No. 1 Canada N/AFootnote 2 N/A N/A
Soybean, No. 2 Canada 21.9 21.1–23.1 20.8
All grades 21.9 21.1–23.1 20.8
Ontario
Soybean, No. 1 Canada 21.4 19.2–23.0 22.5
Soybean, No. 2 Canada 21.0 18.1–23.0 21.1
All grades 21.1 18.1–23.0 21.2
Quebec
Soybean, No. 1 Canada N/A N/A N/A
Soybean, No. 2 Canada 19.9 16.4–21.8 19.0
All grades 19.9 16.4–21.8 19.0
Canada
Soybean, No. 1 Canada 21.4 19.2–23.0 21.5
Soybean, No. 2 Canada 21.0 16.4–23.1 20.9
All grades 21.1 16.4–23.1 21.1

Canadian generic food-type soybeans

Table 3 shows the quality data for 2014 Canadian generic food-type soybeans used for tofu, soymilk or miso. Mean 100-seed weight for 2014 generic food-type soybean was 17.5 g, which was higher than the mean for 2013 (16.4 g). Water absorption capacity was 1.17 g H2O per g seeds, which was higher than that for 2013. Seed size and water uptake capacity are important quality characteristics of food-type soybeans for the production of tofu, soymilk and miso.

The nitrogen solubility index, which indicates the percentage of water-soluble protein, was 82.8% for generic food-type soybeans in 2014 (Table 3), close to that for 2013 (83.1%). High nitrogen solubility index is preferred for soymilk and tofu production since soybeans with a high nitrogen solubility index tend to give a high protein recovery when processed into soymilk, which in turn leads to high recovery in the final tofu product.

The mean protein content for 2014 Canadian generic food-type soybean was 40.2 g per 100 g dry matter (Table 3), which was lower than the mean for 2013 (42.3 g per 100 g dry matter). The mean oil content for 2014 was 20.9 g per 100 g dry matter, which was slightly higher than the mean for 2013 (20.6 g per 100 g dry matter).

The mean sucrose content in 2014 generic food-type soybean was 65.7 g per kg dry matter, which was higher than the mean for 2013 (62.6 g per kg dry matter) (Table 3). The mean total oligosaccharides content for 2014 was 44.3 g per kg dry matter, which was slightly higher than the mean for 2013 (43.6 g per kg dry matter).

The mean total isoflavones content for 2014 Canadian generic food-type soybean was 3201 mg per kg dry matter, which was higher than the mean for 2013 (Table 3).

Table 3 – Quality data for 2014 Canadian generic food-type soybean compositesFootnote 4
Quality parameter 2014 2013
Physical characteristic
100-seed weight, g/100 seeds 17.5 16.4
Water absorption, g H2O/g seeds 1.17 1.08
Nitrogen solubility index (NSI), % 82.8 83.1
Chemical composition (g/100 g DM)
Protein content 40.2 42.3
Oil content 20.9 20.6
Sugar content (g/kg DM)
Sucrose 65.7 62.6
Raffinose 7.1 8.1
Stachyose 36.4 35.1
Verbascose 0.84 0.40
Total oligosaccharidesFootnote 5 44.3 43.6
Isoflavones (mg/kg DM)
Total isoflavonesFootnote 6 3201 2516

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Protein content (N x 6.25) is determined by near infrared measurement calibrated against the Combustion Nitrogen Analysis reference method.

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Footnote 2

N/A=not available due to insufficient samples.

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Footnote 3

Oil content is determined by near infrared measurement calibrated against the ISO 10565:1992(E) reference method.

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Footnote 4

Soybean, No.1 Canada and No. 2 Canada combined.

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Footnote 5

Sum of raffinose, stachyose and verbascose.

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Footnote 3

Sum of isoflavone aglycones (daidzein, genistein and glycitein), glucosides, malonyl glucosides and acetyl glucosides.

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