Quality of Canadian oilseed-type soybeans 2015

Canadian oilseed-type soybeans quality

Oil and protein content

The average oil content was 21.5% (Table 2) for soybean graded No. 1 and No. 2 Canada, an increase when compared to the 20.9% observed in 2014 (Table 4). This result is similar to the 5-year average of 21.4%. There was not an important difference between the oil content averages obtained for the various grades (Table 2); Soybean No. 3 Canada averaged 21.8% and Soybean No. 4 Canada averaged 21.0%. There was a slight difference between the averages of the soybean No. 1 and No. 2 Canada from eastern and western provinces, with samples from the east showing overall a higher oil content than the samples from the west (Table 2). All grades combined, individual producer samples ranged from 17.4 to 25.8%, a higher oil content range than what was observed for the 2014 soybean harvest (16.8% to 24.5%).

The average protein content was 39.6%, identical to what was observed last year but much lower than what was observed in 2013 (40.2%). However, this result was similar to the 5-year average (2010-14) of 39.4%. Samples from the eastern provinces of Canada typically show higher protein content than samples from western Canada (40.1% versus 38.1%). For all grades combined individual producer samples ranged from 31.3 to 43.2%, this protein range was larger in 2014 (31.3% to 45.1%) than in 2015.

As Tables 2 and 4 show, in Ontario, the average oil and protein content (21.7% and 39.8%) had a significant increase in oil (+0.6%) associated with an decrease in protein (-1.0%) when compared to the 2014 harvest (oil: 20.9% and protein: 40.8%). In Québec, oil content increased to 21.2%, a slight increase compare to the 2014 average (20.8%). However the protein average of the soybean samples graded No. 1 and No. 2 Canada was higher when compared to 2014 (41.1 vs 39.9%). In Manitoba, the average oil content (21.2%) also showed a very slight increase compare to last year average (20.9%) while a significant increase in protein was observed (38.0% in 2015 compared to 37.2% in 2014).

A low number of samples were obtained from Prince Edwards Island and New Brunswick, oil content and protein content averages were 22.2 and 20.9% and 35.5 and 39.4%, respectively.

Important variations in the protein and oil contents in the top 2 grades could be observed between provinces and eastern and western provinces (Table 2). While quality parameters can be strongly affected by environmental conditions, the variety of soybean planted, plus soil fertility, can also affect quality. The inverse relationship between oil and protein content is illustrated in Figure 2 for eastern and western Canada. The figure also showed the effect of the sample location on the protein and the oil content.

Figure 2. Oil and protein content trend for eastern and western Canada 2015

Graph shows inverse relationship between oil and protein. Details in the following tables.

Sample data: Oil and protein content trend for eastern and western Canada 2015, by province
Manitoba: Relationship between oil and protein content by individual sample for 2015
Oil content, %
(dry matter basis)
Protein content, %
(N x 6.25, dry matter basis)
21.5 39.8
22.5 35.9
22.4 39.8
21.8 37.9
22.3 39.5
20.6 38.7
25.1 32.8
18.2 43.2
22 37.7
20.7 40
21 39.6
18 41.5
21.4 38.7
20.5 40.5
22 38.8
19.1 41
20.4 38.6
21.7 37.3
21.3 36.5
21.6 38
19.8 40.3
19.9 40.4
21.8 36.9
21.1 38.1
23 36.2
21.1 38.4
21.5 38.6
22.1 37.8
20.9 40.3
20.6 38.3
21.7 39
21.1 38
20.1 40.1
21.1 39.1
22.5 35.7
23 37.5
21.1 39.9
22.3 37.4
21.9 38.7
23.8 33.5
20 40.1
22.2 37.3
21.4 37.8
20.8 37.5
20.6 37.9
22.7 38.2
19.6 35.4
21.8 38.1
22 39.1
21.6 37.5
20.9 39.3
21.4 39.3
22 38.4
22.1 39.4
22.4 39.2
21.8 38.1
21.5 38.5
21.9 36.1
21.9 36.2
20.2 37.5
22.2 38
21 37.9
20.9 38.9
20.1 41.5
21.4 40
20.6 38.1
19.1 39.9
20.9 39.6
21.8 38.5
20.2 40.2
21.2 39.3
20.5 40.2
22.6 37.2
21 36.3
22.6 35.7
21.4 37.1
20.7 40.4
22.3 38.8
21.6 39.6
19.1 40.7
23.3 35.5
21.8 38.1
20 40.5
21 38.4
19 39.3
21.4 38.6
22.5 37.2
22.6 37.9
21.3 38.6
18.8 40.5
21.2 38.4
22.1 38.4
22.8 38.6
Saskatchewan: Relationship between oil and protein content by individual sample for 2015
Oil content, %
(dry matter basis)
Protein content, %
(N x 6.25, dry matter basis)
21.7 39.1
22.9 35.2
21.1 39.2
19 38.3
21.2 36.7
21.6 37.1
21.6 38
20.7 37.9
22 35.8
19 40
20.9 35.2
20.5 38.7
19.9 40.2
18.8 37.7
22.2 37.5
24.2 32.4
20 39.6
19 38.5
20.2 38.1
22.2 36.6
20.8 39.5
22.6 37.8
21.3 37.7
23.2 36.6
20.2 38.3
22.4 35.4
20.3 36.3
19.7 39.8
Alberta and British Columbia: Relationship between oil and protein content by individual sample for 2015
Oil content, %
(dry matter basis)
Protein content, %
(N x 6.25, dry matter basis)
18.8 40.6
17.4 35.9
New Brunswick: Relationship between oil and protein content by individual sample for 2015
Oil content, %
(dry matter basis)
Protein content, %
(N x 6.25, dry matter basis)
20.8 40.1
20.7 39.9
21 39.4
Ontario: Relationship between oil and protein content by individual sample for 2015
Oil content, %
(dry matter basis)
Protein content, %
(N x 6.25, dry matter basis)
22.2 38.1
22.5 38.6
22.3 40.3
22.4 40.9
20.5 41.9
23.1 39.5
22.2 40.1
22.3 40.6
22.8 39.9
21.1 40.9
23 39.5
22 41.5
21.7 41.4
23.8 39.8
21.1 40.6
23.7 38.8
21.7 40.8
22 40.2
22.5 39.4
21.6 40
22 40.4
23 38.8
21.7 41.3
22.3 40.5
21.8 40.1
21.9 39.5
20.5 40.7
23.6 33.5
21.6 40.1
21.5 42.2
23.7 39.7
21.7 39.4
21.1 41
21.3 40.1
23.3 38.6
22.6 39.5
21.6 40.5
21.4 41
21.4 39.1
22.1 41.1
21.2 39.6
22.4 39.8
21.4 39.5
20.8 39.9
20.8 40.5
22.5 41.8
22 41
22.5 39.7
20.8 41
20.6 40.3
21.7 41.2
22.5 40.1
23 40.1
22.2 39.3
25.8 31.3
22 37.6
21.8 38.1
20.8 39.5
21.2 40.9
21.1 40.9
21 40.3
21.5 40.3
21.4 40.3
20.9 39.1
20.1 41.1
22.6 35.4
20.2 41.2
21.1 39.6
Prince Edward Island: Relationship between oil and protein content by individual sample for 2015
Oil content, %
(dry matter basis)
Protein content, %
(N x 6.25, dry matter basis)
22.7 35.9
22.3 35.5
Quebec: Relationship between oil and protein content by individual sample for 2015
Oil content, %
(dry matter basis)
Protein content, %
(N x 6.25, dry matter basis)
18.5 42.4
23.1 41
21.5 41.1
22 41.6
21.4 40.5
19.6 43
20.8 42.1
21.3 41.1
20.9 41.6
21.6 40.4
21.9 39.3
20.7 41.7
20.3 41.3
21.7 41.4
21.7 40.3
21.3 41.3
21.6 41.3
22.7 40.8
22 42.3
20.3 42.6
22.8 39.8
20.3 41.6
22 41.7
22.5 40.9
20.7 41.7
21.1 41.2
22.8 39.7
21.9 39.9
22 40.4
20 44.2
21 41.6
21.3 40.8
20.9 42.4
21.9 38.4
21.2 42.4
22.1 41.5
22.4 39.8
22.2 39.9
21.3 41.8

Fatty acid composition

Table 3 shows fatty acid composition for the combined No. 1 and 2 grade composites from the various provinces. The fatty acid composition varied greatly from province to province, the linolenic acid (C18:2) is the main fatty acid found in soybean oil, followed by oleic acid (C18:1), palmitic acid (C16:0) and α-linolenic acid (C18:3) (Table 3). This year, the linolenic acid (C18:2) ranged from 58.8% (Prince Edward Island) to 52% (Québec) while oleic acid ranged from 16.6% (Prince Edward Island) to 24.0% (Québec). Alberta samples showed the highest α-linolenic acid content (11.4%) while samples from Québec had the lowest (8.2%) followed by Ontario (8.4%). Overall samples from western Canada showed higher α-linolenic acid content than samples from eastern Canada (Table 3), this resulted in higher iodine value for samples from the west when compared to samples from the east. Total saturates averaged 15.2% in Canada varying from 14.1% (Prince Edward Island) to 15.4% (Ontario).

In 2014, the α-linolenic acid content was higher than in 2015, western Canada averaged 9.3% (9.0% in 2015) and 10.5% in eastern Canada (8.4% in 2015) while the overall Canadian average was 9.6% (8.5% in 2015). This was confirmed by the iodine value averages, 136.5, 140.4 and 137.5 units for western Canada, eastern Canada and Canada in 2014 versus 134.5, 133.3 and 133.7 in 2015.

All grades combined, the iodine value averages were higher in 2014 than in 2015, 135.0 versus 133.7 units reflecting the higher α-linolenic acid content averages (8.5% in 2015 versus 9.1% in 2014).

Variety selection, soil fertility and environmental growing conditions are factor contributing to the difference in the fatty acid composition between the provinces.

Free fatty acid (FFA) content

Grade composites showed free fatty acid levels, averaging 0.09% for composite samples of Soybean, No. 1 Canada and Soybean, No. 2 Canada (Table 3). This is lower than what was observed last year (0.16%).

High free fatty acid values are mainly due to seed damage, which results from exposure to moisture and oxygen, wet harvesting conditions and improper storage. It has been noted that free fatty acid levels could increase during storage due to storage and environmental conditions.

Tables

Table 2. Oil, protein and chlorophyll contents and free fatty acid content of the oil of the 2015 soybean survey by province and grade
Province Number of samples Oil
(%, in dry basis)
Protein
(%, in dry basis)Footnote1
Chlorophyll Free Fatty AcidFootnote2
mean min. max. mean min. max. mg/kg %, in oil
Soybean, No. 1 Canada and Soybean No. 2 Canada
Manitoba 85 21.2 18.0 25.1 38.0 32.8 43.2 0.4 0.04
Saskatchewan 25 20.6 18.8 24.2 38.4 32.4 40.2 0.8 0.11
Alberta 2 18.6 17.4 18.8 39.3 35.9 40.6 1.5 0.03
Western Canada 112 21.1 17.4 25.1 38.1 32.4 43.2 0.4 0.05
Ontario 69 21.7 20.1 25.8 39.8 31.3 42.2 0.3 0.18
Québec 37 21.2 18.5 23.1 41.1 38.4 44.2 0.3 0.08
Prince Edward Island 2 22.2 21.7 22.7 35.7 35.5 35.9 0.5 0.15
New Brunswick 3 20.9 20.7 21.0 39.5 39.4 40.1 0.2 0.09
Eastern Canada 108 21.6 20.1 22.4 40.1 31.3 42.2 0.3 0.10
Canada 220 21.5 17.4 22.4 39.6 31.3 43.2 0.3 0.09
Soybean, No. 3
Eastern Canada 1 22.3     39.6     1.8 0.29
Western Canada NAFootnote3                
Canada 1 22.3     39.6     1.8 0.29
Soybean, No. 4
Eastern Canada 1 21.0     41.6     0.3 1.05
Western Canada NAFootnote3                
Canada 1 21.0     41.6     0.3 1.05
Soybean, All grades combined
Manitoba 85 21.2 18.0 25.1 38.0 32.8 43.2 0.4 0.04
Saskatchewan 25 20.6 18.8 24.2 38.4 32.4 40.2 0.8 0.11
Alberta 2 18.6 17.4 18.8 39.3 35.9 40.6 1.5 0.03
Western Canada 112 21.1 17.4 25.1 38.1 32.4 43.2 0.4 0.05
Ontario 69 21.7 20.1 25.8 39.8 31.3 42.2 0.3 0.08
Québec 39 21.2 18.5 23.1 41.0 38.4 44.2 0.4 0.21
Prince Edward Island 2 22.2 21.7 22.7 35.7 35.5 35.9 0.5 0.15
New Brunswick 3 20.9 20.7 21.0 39.5 39.4 40.1 0.2 0.09
Eastern Canada 113 21.6 20.1 25.8 40.1 31.3 42.2 0.3 0.11
Canada 225 21.5 17.4 25.8 39.6 31.3 43.2 0.3 0.09
Table 3. Main fatty acid contents and iodine value of the oil of the 2015 soybean survey by province and grade
Province Number of samples C16:0 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 SATSFootnote4 MUFAFootnote5 PUFAFootnote6 Iodine ValueFootnote7
%, in oil units
Soybean, No. 1 Canada and Soybean No. 2 Canada
Manitoba 85 10.0 4.0 23.1 52.4 8.8 14.8 23.5 61.3 134.1
Saskatchewan 25 10.0 4.4 20.0 54.1 9.9 15.3 20.3 64.1 137.1
Alberta 2 10.1 4.0 17.1 55.8 11.4 15.0 17.4 67.3 141.4
Western Canada 112 10.0 4.0 22.7 52.6 9.0 14.9 23.1 61.7 134.5
Ontario 69 10.4 4.2 22.4 53.1 8.4 15.4 22.8 61.5 133.4
Québec 37 10.3 3.8 24.0 52.0 8.2 15.0 24.4 60.3 132.6
Prince Edward Island 2 10.2 3.2 16.6 58.8 9.7 14.1 16.9 68.5 141.8
New Brunswick 3 10.7 3.7 18.8 55.7 9.5 15.3 19.1 65.2 137.8
Eastern Canada 108 10.4 4.1 22.7 52.9 8.4 15.3 23.0 61.3 133.3
Canada 220 10.3 4.1 22.7 52.8 8.5 15.2 23.1 61.4 133.7
Soybean, No. 3
Eastern Canada 1 10.3 3.9 20.1 55.4 8.4 15.2 20.4 63.9 135.6
Western Canada NAFootnote3                  
Canada 1 10.3 3.9 20.1 55.4 8.4 15.2 20.4 63.9 135.6
Soybean, No. 4
Eastern Canada 1 11.8 4.0 20.2 53.1 9.2 16.6 20.5 62.4 133.8
Western provinces NAFootnote3                  
Canada 1 11.8 4.0 20.2 53.1 9.2 16.6 20.5 62.4 133.8
Soybean, All grades combined
Manitoba 85 10.0 4.0 23.1 52.4 8.8 14.8 23.5 61.3 134.1
Saskatchewan 25 10.0 4.4 20.0 54.1 9.9 15.3 20.3 64.1 137.1
Alberta 2 10.1 4.0 17.1 55.8 11.4 15.0 17.4 67.3 141.4
Western Canada 112 10.0 4.0 22.7 52.6 9.0 14.9 23.1 61.7 134.5
Ontario 69 10.4 4.2 22.4 53.1 8.4 15.4 22.8 61.5 133.4
Québec 39 10.4 3.9 23.8 52.2 8.2 15.0 24.2 60.4 132.7
Prince Edward Island 2 10.2 3.2 16.6 58.8 9.7 14.1 16.9 68.5 141.8
New Brunswick 3 10.7 3.7 18.8 55.7 9.5 15.3 19.1 65.2 137.8
Eastern Canada 113 10.4 4.1 22.6 52.9 8.4 15.3 23.0 61.3 133.4
Canada 225 10.3 4.1 22.7 52.9 8.5 15.2 23.0 61.4 133.7
Table 4. Quality data (oil, protein, iodine value and free fatty acid) of the 2014 soybean survey by province
Province Oil ProteinFootnote1 Free Fatty AcidFootnote2 C16:0 C18:0 C18:1 C18:2 C18:3 Iodine ValueFootnote7
%, dry basis %, in oil units
2014 - Soybean, No. 1 Canada and Soybean No. 2 Canada
Western Canada 21.0 40.5 0.17 10.4 3.7 20.8 54.3 9.3 136.5
Eastern Canada 20.6 37.3 0.15 10.3 3.7 17.7 56.2 10.5 140.4
Canada 20.9 39.6 0.16 10.4 3.7 20.0 54.8 9.6 137.5
2014 - Soybean, All grades combined
Manitoba 20.9 37.2 0.12 10.3 3.7 18.0 56.2 10.2 140
Saskatchewan 19.3 37.8 0.28 10.3 3.8 16.5 56.3 11.6 142
Alberta NAFootnote3                
Western Canada 20.1 38.1              
Ontario 20.9 40.8 0.18 10.4 3.7 20.8 54.2 9.4 137
Québec 20.8 39.9 0.12 10.2 4.0 20.0 54.9 9.4 137
Prince Edward Island 22.2 21.8 0.16 10.8 3.7 18.3 56.5 9.2 138
New Brunswick 22.5 35.8 0.27 10.1 3.7 19.1 55.4 10.0 139
Eastern Canada 19.5 41.7              
Canada 20.8 39.7 0.16 10.4 3.7 19.7 54.0 9.1 135

Footnotes

Footnote 1

calculated from nitrogen content with N x 6.25

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

calculated as % of oleic acid

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

non applicable, no samples

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

sum of all saturated fatty acid from C12:00 to C24:0

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

sum of all mono-unsaturated fatty acids (C16:1, C18:1, C20:1, C22:1 and C24:1)

Return to footnote 5 referrer

Footnote 6

sum to all poly-unsaturated fatty acids from C18:00 to C22:00

Return to footnote 6 referrer

Footnote 7

calculated from the fatty acid composition

Return to footnote 7 referrer